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Minerals. Definition: A mineral is. naturally occurring Made by Mother Nature -it is NOT man made!. An inorganic material (It is NOT and has NEVER been living). It is NOT a liquid It is NOT a gas. It is a SOLID. It has a crystalline structure when examined under a microscope.

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definition a mineral is
Definition: A mineral is
  • naturally occurring

Made by Mother Nature

-it is NOT man made!

slide3
An inorganic material

(It is NOT and has

NEVER been living)

it has a crystalline structure when examined under a microscope
It has a crystalline structure when examined under a microscope

It has either a

  • cubic
  • hexagonal
  • orthorhombic
  • monoclinic
  • triclinic

or

  • tetragonal

Crystalline Structure

it has a definite chemical composition
It has a definite chemical composition
  • Every atom of the mineral has the same chemical formula
  • For example:

Halite: NaCl

Galena: PbS

Fluorite: CaF2

Talc: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2

a mineral is
naturally occurring

inorganic

solid

crystalline structure

chemical composition

Now

I

See

Crystal

Clear.

A mineral is:
classification of minerals
Classification of minerals

HARDNESS

  • Geologists use the Mohs Hardness Scale to determine a mineral’s hardness.
  • The Mohs Hardness Scale ranks a mineral’s hardness from 1-10 with 1 being the softest ( can scratch it with your fingernail) and 10 being the hardest (cannot be scratched by any other substance).
  • The mineral with a Mohs Hardness Scale of 1 is talc.
  • The mineral with a Mohs Hardness Scale of 10 is diamond.
color
Color
  • Color is a physical property of a mineral.
  • It is NOT a dependable way to classify minerals because many minerals may have the same color.

Examples:

  • Gold and pyrite are both gold.
  • Quartz may be rosy pink, white, purple, gray or yellowy.
streak
Streak
  • A mineral’s streak is the color it leaves behind when scratched on an unglazed tile called a streak plate.
  • A mineral’s streak is the color of its powder.
luster
Luster
  • A mineral’s luster describes how the mineral reflects light.

Examples:

  • Minerals that are metals are shiny.
  • Quartz has a glassy luster.
  • Talc has a greasy luster.
density
Density
  • Each mineral has its own characteristic density. That is why density is an excellent way to identify a mineral.
  • Density refers to a mineral’s mass per unit of volume.
  • Geologists use a balance to determine a mineral’s mass and water displacement with a graduated cylinder to determine its volume.
  • Density is expressed in units called grams per cubic centimeter.
  • The formula for calculating the density of a mineral (or any substance) is its mass divided by its volume.
cleavage and fracture
Cleavage and Fracture
  • Cleavage refers to a mineral’s ability to split along flat surfaces. (String cheese has cleavage along a regular surface.)
  • Fracture refers to a mineral’s ability to break along irregular surfaces. (Tearing a piece of paper is an example of what this looks like.)
special properties
Special Properties
  • Some minerals have magnetic properties. That means that they are attracted to magnets.
  • Some minerals are fluorescent. That means that they glow under ultra violet (UV) light.
  • Some minerals are radioactive. They cause a Geiger counter to be set off.
  • Other minerals have electrical properties. Quartz produces a slight electrical current when pressure is applied to it.