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Essentials of Fire Fighting , 5 th Edition. Chapter 20 — Fire Prevention and Public Education Firefighter II. Chapter 20 Lesson Goal.

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Essentials of fire fighting 5 th edition l.jpg

Essentials of Fire Fighting,

5th Edition

Chapter 20 — Fire Prevention and Public Education

Firefighter II


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Chapter 20 Lesson Goal

  • After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to give fire prevention and public education presentations following the policies and procedures set forth by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ).

Firefighter II


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Specific Objectives

1. Describe a survey and an inspection.

2. Discuss the fire prevention activities of reviewing community data and code enforcement.

3. Summarize common fuel and heat-source hazards.

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Specific Objectives

4. Discuss common fire hazards and why they increase the likelihood of a fire.

5. Summarize special fire hazards in commercial, manufacturing, and public-assembly occupancies.

6. Summarize target hazard properties.

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Specific Objectives

7. Discuss personal requirements and equipment requirements for conducting inspections.

8. Discuss scheduling and conducting fire inspections.

9. Discuss the benefits of preincident planning surveys.

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Specific Objectives

10. Explain how a preincident planning survey is conducted.

11. Explain the purpose of a residential fire safety survey.

12. Summarize guidelines for conducting residential fire safety surveys.

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Specific Objectives

13. Summarize common causes of residential fires.

14. Summarize items to address when conducting residential fire safety surveys.

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Specific Objectives

15. Discuss general considerations for the preparation and delivery of fire and life safety information.

16. Discuss presenting fire and life safety education for adults.

17. Discuss presenting fire and life-safety information for young children.

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Specific Objectives

18. Discuss fire and life-safety presentation topics.

19. Discuss fire station tours.

20. Prepare a preincident survey. (Skill Sheet 20-II-1)

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Specific Objectives

21. Conduct a residential fire safety survey. (Skill Sheet 20-II-2)

22. Make a fire and life safety presentation. (Skill Sheet 20-II-3)

23. Conduct a fire station tour. (Skill Sheet 20-II-4)

Firefighter II


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Surveys

  • Used to gather/impart information

  • Used to gather information for preincident planning

  • If conducted while buildings are under construction, helpful in identifying certain characteristics

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Surveys

  • Help to familiarize firefighters with contents, manufacturing processes, layouts of buildings

  • What a survey includes

  • Voluntary residential life safety surveys

Firefighter II


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Inspections

  • May be made by fire inspectors or company officers and crews

  • Usually include enforcement of most common code requirements

  • May uncover more serious code violations

Firefighter II


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Fire Incident Records

  • Contain critical information about fire history of community

  • Can be helpful with fire prevention efforts

Firefighter II


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Code Enforcement Inspections

  • Conducted in commercial, institutional, industrial occupancies

  • Ensure citizens have safe physical environment in which to work, study, worship, play

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Code Enforcement Inspections

  • May be conducted by fire inspectors withspecial training in code requirements for various types of occupancies or by fire company personnel

  • Should document any unsafe conditions that are found

Firefighter II


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Fire Hazard

  • Condition increasing likelihood of fire starting or increasing the extent/severity of a fire if one did start

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Fire Hazard

  • Can be prevented by eliminating one element of fire tetrahedron

  • Considerations of eliminating elements

Firefighter II


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Fuel Hazards

  • Ordinary combustibles

  • Flammable, combustible gases

  • Flammable, combustible liquids

  • Chemicals

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Fuel Hazards

  • Dusts

  • Metals

  • Plastics, resins, and cellulose

Firefighter II


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Heat Source Hazards

  • Chemical heat energy

  • Electrical heat energy

  • Mechanical heat energy

  • Nuclear heat energy

Firefighter II


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Common Fire Hazard

A condition prevalent in almost all occupancies that increases likelihood of fire starting

Firefighter II


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Be Alert to Common Hazards

  • Obstructed electrical panels

  • Poor housekeeping, improper storage of combustible materials

  • Defective or improperly used heating, lighting, power equipment

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Be Alert to Common Hazards

  • Improper disposal of floor-cleaning compounds

  • Misuse of fumigation substances and flammable or combustible liquids

Firefighter II


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Increasing Likelihood of Fire

  • Poor housekeeping

  • Improperly functioning components can provide ignition source for nearby combustibles

  • Sheer fabrics being draped over lamps as a decoration

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Increasing Likelihood of Fire

  • Floor cleaning compounds, fumigating substances, and other flammable and combustible liquids — If improperly used and stored, can provide volatile fuel source

  • Personal fire hazards

Firefighter II


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Special Fire Hazards in Commercial Occupancies

  • Lack of automatic sprinklers/other relevant fixed fire protection systems

  • Change of occupancy exceeding use for which permits issued

  • Display/storage of large quantities of combustible products

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Special Fire Hazards in Commercial Occupancies

  • Mixed varieties of contents

  • Difficulties in entering occupancies during closed periods

  • Illegal building additions

  • Illegal storage

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Special Fire Hazards in Commercial Occupancies

  • Storage aisles incorrect distance apart

  • Fire department connection obstructed

  • Storage obstructing sprinklers

  • Existence of party walls, common attics, cocklofts, other open voids in multiple occupancies

Firefighter II


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Special Fire Hazards in Manufacturing Occupancies

  • High-hazard processes using volatile substances, oxidizers, extreme temperatures

  • Flammable liquids in dip tanks, ovens, and dryers in addition to those used in mixing, coating, spraying, degreasing processes

Firefighter II


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Special Fire Hazards in Manufacturing Occupancies

  • High-piled storage of combustible materials

  • Operation of vehicles, fork trucks, other trucks inside buildings

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Special Fire Hazards in Manufacturing Occupancies

  • Large, open areas

  • Large-scale use of flammable, combustible gases

  • Lack of automatic sprinklers/other fixed fire protection systems

Firefighter II


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Special Fire Hazards in Public-Assembly Occupancies

  • Lack of automatic sprinklers, detection systems, fire notification systems

  • Large numbers of people present

  • Insufficient, obstructed, locked exits

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Special Fire Hazards in Public-Assembly Occupancies

  • Materials stored in paths of egress

  • Highly combustible interior finishes

  • Inadequate/inoperative fire extinguishers

  • Inadequate/inoperative exit lighting

Firefighter II


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Target Hazard Properties

  • Any structure in which there is greater-than-normal potential for loss of life/property from fire

  • Should receive special attention during surveys

Firefighter II


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Target Hazard Examples

  • Lumberyards

  • Bulk oil storage facilities

  • Shopping malls

  • Hospitals

  • Theaters

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Target Hazard Examples

  • Nursing homes

  • Rows of frame tenements

  • Schools

  • High-rise hotels/condominiums

  • Large public assemblies – concert halls, stadiums, etc.

Firefighter II


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Fire Inspection Requirements

  • Every firefighter engaged in fire prevention efforts must be capable of meeting with property owners/occupants

  • Firefighters who are technically competent can provide valuable service to the public

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Fire Inspection Requirements

  • Especially important that firefighters convey only technically accurate information during inspections

  • Firefighter’s ability to conduct inspections competently will improve with study, experience, and on-the-job training

Firefighter II


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Personal Requirements

  • Firefighters should be well-informed about fire and life safety issues

  • Firefighters should present a well-groomed, neat appearance

  • Uniforms should be clean and in good condition

Firefighter II


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Equipment Requirements

  • Research on occupancies

  • Writing equipment

  • Drawing equipment

  • Other equipment

Firefighter II


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Scheduling Fire Inspections

  • During normal business hours

  • Some scheduled by contacting business owner ahead of time

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Scheduling Fire Inspections

  • Scheduling allows inspections to be conducted at least disruptive time

  • Other inspections conducted systematically; no scheduling

Firefighter II


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Conducting Fire Inspections

  • Firefighter conduct

  • Enter premises at main entrance, contact the individual with whom inspection scheduled

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Conducting Fire Inspections

  • Introduce team, briefly review inspection process, answer any questions occupant may have

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Conducting Fire Inspections

  • Occupant or a representative should accompany the inspection team

  • Inspection team should ask that all locked rooms or closets be opened for inspection

  • Most start from outside

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Conducting Fire Inspections

  • Survey team moves to interior

  • Regardless of the type of occupancy, specific code requirements that apply, each item inspected should be explained to person accompanying inspection team

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Conducting Fire Inspections

  • If one or more code violations are found, plan of correction must be agreed upon between inspection team and occupant

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Conducting Fire Inspections

  • Form and content of plan of correction should be clearly defined in departmental SOPs covering inspection process

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Conducting Fire Inspections

  • In most departments, occupant or representative required to sign inspection form

  • Inspection team leader should thank occupant for cooperating

Firefighter II


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Preincident Planning Surveys

  • Allow firefighters to gather information about conditions that might affect future emergency operations in a building

  • Allow firefighters to develop plans that minimize a building’s deficiencies, maximize strengths

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Preincident Planning Surveys

  • Residential fire safety surveys

  • Firefighters need a number of personal, technical skills to conduct fire safety surveys properly

Firefighter II


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Benefits of Preincident Planning Surveys

  • Allow firefighters to gather information about the structure under ideal conditions

  • Can provide firefighters with critical information that might not be available during active fire

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Benefits of Preincident Planning Surveys

  • Allow firefighters to become aware of building components

  • Can greatly improve emergency operations, substantially improve firefighter, citizen safety

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Benefits of Preincident Planning Surveys

  • Include maps, drawings, photographs, written notes that may help firefighters

Firefighter II


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Fuel Loads

  • Bulk of fuel available to burn and generally refers to the contents of a building

  • Major fuel sources

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Fuel Loads

  • Knowing combustibles in a building

  • Imperative that this information be gathered during preincident surveys

Firefighter II


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Conducting Preincident Planning Survey Outside Building

  • Make general observations, complete preliminary notes, take photographs

  • Note locations

  • Make notations of construction attributes, other information

  • Check address/accessibility issues

Firefighter II


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Conducting Preincident Surveys Inside Building

  • When survey of exterior is completed, go directly to roof or basement and proceed with systematic survey

  • If floor plan drawings are not available from building owner, firefighters create

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Conducting Preincident Surveys Inside Building

  • To conduct a thorough survey, firefighters must take enough time to make notes, take photographs of observed hazards, unsafe conditions

  • Drawings of interior layout, high-hazard areas, egress routes, important features should be made

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Conducting Preincident Surveys Inside Building

  • Complete set of notes, photographs, well-prepared drawings of the building

  • Large or complex buildings

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Conducting Preincident Surveys Inside Building

  • If a floor plan used on a previous survey is available, make sure to record any changes made, update floor plan drawings accordingly

Firefighter II


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Making Maps and Drawings

  • Large occupancies, complexes may already have maps

  • For buildings where existing maps are unavailable or outdated, firefighters should include simple plot plan drawing

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Making Maps and Drawings

  • In many cases, drawings are the most important product of survey

  • Data should be recorded by using common plan symbols as often as possible

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Making Maps and Drawings

  • Use of computerized Geographic Information System (GIS) or other electronic mapping programs can save hours, should be used where available

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Making Maps and Drawings

  • Components included in maps and drawings

  • Sectional elevation drawing of a structure may be needed to show elevation changes, mezzanines, balconies, other structural features

Firefighter II


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Photographs

  • Can show important details that even accurate drawings cannot

  • Can quickly/easily record tremendous amount of information

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Photographs

  • May include interior, close-up photographs

  • Video

Firefighter II


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Residential Fire Safety Surveys

  • Can only be conducted on a voluntary basis

  • Require great deal of advanced planning and publicity

  • Main objectives

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Residential Fire Safety Surveys

  • Provide other benefits in addition to reducing loss of life and property

  • Increase fire awareness, interest in public education efforts

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Residential Fire Safety Surveys

  • May be the best time for firefighters to distribute literature, promote programs

  • May include special cards or slips

  • Provide firefighters with valuable information

Firefighter II


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Residential Fire Safety Survey Guidelines

  • Conduct surveys in teams of two

  • Dress and act professionally

  • Introduce team, provide proper identification

  • Explain survey procedure

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Residential Fire Safety Survey Guidelines

  • Maintain courteous, businesslike attitude

  • Focus on preventing fires, eliminating threats to life safety

  • Compliment occupants when favorable conditions found

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Residential Fire Safety Survey Guidelines

  • Offer constructive suggestions for correcting/eliminating hazardous conditions

  • Survey all rooms

  • Discuss survey results with owner/occupant, answer any questions

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Residential Fire Safety Survey Guidelines

  • Thank owners or occupants for invitation into their homes

  • Keep survey confidential

  • If no one home, leave appropriate materials between storm door and front door or partially beneath doormat

Firefighter II


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Common Residential Fire Causes

  • Malfunctioning heating appliances and water heaters

  • Combustibles too close to heating appliances or lamps

  • Unsafe cooking procedures

  • Smoking materials

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Common Residential Fire Causes

  • Overloaded extension cords and multiple-outlet devices

  • Exposed electrical wiring

  • Defective electrical appliances

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Common Residential Fire Causes

  • Improper use of combustible or flammable liquids

  • Poor housekeeping

  • Untended candles

Firefighter II


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Address During Interior Surveys

  • Combustible materials

  • Appliances

  • Electrical wiring/equipment

  • Portable heating units

  • Woodstoves/fireplaces

  • Heating fuel

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Address During Interior Surveys

  • General housekeeping practices

  • Smoke alarms

  • Electrical distribution panels

  • Gas appliances

  • Oil-burning units

  • Furnaces

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Address During Interior Surveys

  • Water heaters

  • Shop/work rooms

  • Accumulated waste

  • Flammable liquids

Firefighter II


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Address During Exterior Surveys

  • Roof

  • Chimneys/spark arrestors

  • Yard/porch areas

  • Barbecues and fuel

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Address During Exterior Surveys

  • Outside waste burners

  • Garages, sheds, barns, outbuildings

  • Flammable liquids/gases

  • Lightning protection

  • Security devices

  • Power lines

Firefighter II


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Home Safety Issues

  • Maintaining clear/unobstructed exit pathways

  • Safety concerning water

Firefighter II


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Fire and Life Safety Messages Must Be

  • Accurate

  • Positive

  • Targeted to specific audience

Firefighter II


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Accurate Messages

  • Conveying wrong information can be deadly

  • Sources available to assist in verifying accuracy of content

Firefighter II


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Positive Messages

  • Adults want to know what to do without being scared

  • Positive messages more likely to be remembered during emergency

Firefighter II


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Targeted Messages

  • Fire, life safety educational messages can be based on variety of issues

  • Audiences may vary

  • Knowing audience helps prepare needs-specific presentation

Firefighter II


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Presenting Fire, Life Safety Education for Adults

  • “Teachable moments”

  • Basic four-step method of instruction

Firefighter II


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Basic Four-Step Method of Instruction

  • Preparation

  • Presentation

  • Application

  • Evaluation

Firefighter II


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Presenting Fire, Life Safety Information to Young Children

  • Children often interpret literally

  • Children have limited attention spans

  • Remain flexible when presenting information

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Presenting Fire, Life Safety Information to Young Children

  • When in a classroom, decide with the teacher ahead of time how questions will be handled

  • Get down to the children’s eye level

  • Ask a misbehaving child for help to provide redirection

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Presenting Fire, Life Safety Information to Young Children

  • DO NOT scare children!

  • Remember that firefighters in protective clothing and breathing apparatus can be very frightening to children

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Presenting Fire, Life Safety Information to Young Children

  • Children learn by doing, not by listening

  • Home fire safety concepts are complicated, so messages for young children must communicate basic simple concepts

Firefighter II


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Stop, Drop, and Roll

  • Do more than simply inform of actions

  • Point out if someone’s clothes catch on fire, bystander may need to assist them

Firefighter II


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Home Safety

  • Promote home escape plans, Exit Drills in the Home program, similar efforts

  • Communicate fire, life safety rules to residential occupants

Firefighter II


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Candles

  • Open flame that can ignite nearby combustibles

  • Accounted for 4 percent of all reported residential fires in 2004

  • Safety messages

Firefighter II


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Smoke Alarms

  • May be battery-operated

  • May be part of security alarm system hardwired, monitored by central alarm, reporting station

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Smoke Alarms

  • Location

  • Maintenance, testing

  • Carbon monoxide detectors

Firefighter II


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Fire Station Tours

  • May be spur-of-the-moment visits from people who walk in off the street or scheduled visits

  • Common during Fire Prevention Week

  • More than just an opportunity to enhance department’s public image

Firefighter II


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Procedures During Station Tours

  • Firefighters should be dressed appropriately

  • Firefighters should conduct themselves with courtesy, professionalism

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Procedures During Station Tours

  • All television sets should be turned off, other activities should be as positive as possible

  • Firefighters should answer all questions courteously, to best of their ability

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Procedures During Station Tours

  • While some departments allow visitors to climb on apparatus or don equipment items, many others do not

    • Do not allow children to wear helmets

  • Visitors should never be allowed to roam around fire station unescorted

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Procedures During Station Tours

  • Special care should be taken to protect curious children, other individuals around shop areas or slide poles

  • All groups should be kept together

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Procedures During Station Tours

  • Equipment, apparatus should be demonstrated with appropriate caution to ensure no one endangered

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Procedures During Station Tours

  • Appropriate caution should be exercised when blowing sirens in presence of children because decibels produced can be harmful to their hearing

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Procedures During Station Tours

  • Remember that station mascots (dogs, cats, etc.) can be potential safety and liability hazards

Firefighter II


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Summary

  • Inspections are sometimes conducted by fire inspectors, but are often conducted by company officers and their crews.

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Summary

  • Public education is the process of teaching members of the public how they can protect themselves from fires and other contingencies.

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Summary

  • Recognizing that the most conscientious code enforcement and public education efforts will not eliminate all uncontrolled fires, fire departments must prepare to suppress those fires that do start.

Firefighter II


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Review Questions

1. What is the difference between a survey and an inspection?

2. List four common fire hazards.

3. List five items that should be identified in an inspection.

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Review Questions

4. What items should firefighters check in a preincident planning survey?

5. What are the main objectives of a residential fire safety survey?

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Review Questions

6. What are five questions that firefighters should ask themselves when conducting interior and exterior residential fire safety surveys?

7. What are the steps in presenting fire and life safety information?

(Continued)

Firefighter II


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Review Questions

8. What are some important characteristics and needs of children when presenting fire and life safety information?

9. List common topics for fire and life safety presentations.

10. What precautions should be taken when giving fire station tours?

Firefighter II