New Frontiers Unit 6
1958 Congressional Election • Democrats increase their stronghold in Congress. • A Democrat John Fitzgerald Kennedy won another landslide senatorial election in Massachusetts • He appeared to be a good choice for the Democratic Nomination for…. President in the 1960 Presidential election. Kennedy’s Nomination Drawbacks • Would have to drive out the notion that a Catholic could be elected President • He didn’t have a long political career. • Elected to the House of Representatives 1947-1953 • Elected to the U.S. Senate 1953-1960
Kennedy’s Nomination Drawbacks • His opponents were Lyndon B. Johnson • House of Reps 1937-1949, Senate 1949-1960, Senate Majority Whip, Senate Minority Leader, Senate Majority Leader, • His opponents were Hubert Humphrey • Mayor of Minneapolis 1945-1948, Senator 1948-1964. • First introduced the notion of the Peace Corp in 1957 (JFK gets credit for it though) • His opponents were Stuart Symington • US Secretary of the Air Force 1947-1950, Senator 1953-1976, orchestrated the Berlin Airlift
Election 1960 • Kennedy wins the Democratic Nomination and chooses LBJ to be his VP candidate. (Helped him win the southern vote) • His opponent was Richard Nixon (republican) • Both were considered similar in political views • Both were staunch Cold War advocates (felt that communism had to go) • Both were young (early 40’s) • Both were into civil rights • Both supported the same basic concept of the New Deal • Kennedy was just prettier.
Election 1960“The Issues” • Nixon wasn’t strongly supported by Eisenhower • Kennedy linked Nixon to Eisenhower and how the USA fell behind the Soviets in the space race during his tenure. • Kennedy continued to attack the Republican record of late. • Kennedy being a Catholic was difficult to overcome. • He openly supported the separation of church and state • He rejected federal aid for parochial “private religious” schools • Favored birth control
The Debate • Sept. 1960 1st televised presidential debate. • Kennedy was refreshed (tanned from his California campaign run) • Nixon had poor make up, a knee infection and was tired. • Kennedy had his arguments polished • Nixon did not. • Kennedy was “viewed” as popular after this debate.
The Race • Kennedy was leading after the debate and it seemed that the Democrats would win the White House. • Finally Eisenhower (who was extremely popular) campaigned hard for Nixon and almost pulled out a Rupublican victory. • Kennedy won the 1960 election (by only a margin of 84 electoral college votes) • Smallest margin of victory in US History at the time. • Closest was Bush vs. Gore 2000. Bush won by 5 electoral votes. (Excluding the Hayes vs. Tiden election)
Kennedy’s Presidential Approach • JFK felt that Eisenhower's administration suffered because he wasn’t at the center of things. • JFK felt he would be at the center of action and assert power of office. • He wanted to “energize” the presidency. • (He wanted the power to rest with the president, not so much congress) • He pooled a wide range of advisors to be on his cabinet.
Kennedy’s Presidential Approach • Most notably was Robert Kennedy as Attorney General and his closest advisor.
Kennedy’s Presidential Approach • JFK’s top priority was foreign policy and the military • Wanted to contain the Soviet Union • Felt we got to far behind the Soviets in a number of areas because of a lack of Eisenhower exerting dominance. • JFK felt that 3rd world nations was the key to winning the overall Cold War. • A policy that would lead to the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis during his presidency.
Kennedy’s Presidential Approach • JFK created the Alliance for Progress program in 1961. • Congress approved $500 million for this. • It was designed to eliminate poverty, hunger, and social injustice in Latin America. • It was designed to help countries reform their tax systems, establish democratic governments, improve education, land reform, redistribute income, etc. • Mostly this didn’t work because many Latin American governments didn’t want to redo their tax systems and establish new governments.
Kennedy’s Presidential Approach • March 1961 Kennedy launched the Peace Corps. • This was another way to involve the USA into 3rd World Nations. • Most were young people. • This helped US relations in 3rd World nations so these countries wouldn’t fall to Castroism or Communism. • It showed the USA as a humanitarian country and strengthen the USA ideals in 3rd World nations thus improving our relations in “impressionable countries” during the Cold War.
Bay of Pigs 1961
Bay of Pigs • CIA Plan to train Cuban exiles to join American forces for an overthrow of Castro. • This had been started with Ike. • The attack was going to be amphibious (water) landing at the Bay of Pigs. • 1500 troops landed at the Bay of Pigs. • Castro was ready to meet them. • The invaders lacked equipment and man power and within 3 days Castro overtook them. • The uprising of Cuban exiles never happened.
Bay of PigsCover-up • The US took several B-26 bombers and painted them to look like (FAR) aircrafts. • FAR= Cuban air force government aircrafts. • The mission was for these B-26 bombers to go in and destroy Cuban airfields. • They did destroy some. • At the same time another B-26 bomber with similar marking took off heading for Cuban headquarters.
Bay of PigsCover-up • The one engine was pre-removed fired at and reinstalled along with it’s engine cover. • The pilot flew just south of Florida and radioed a mayday and landed in Miami. He claimed he was a Cuban defector. • He called himself “Juan Garcia” he was really Mario Zungia. (this was all set up) • USA goes to the UN and says we won’t involve citizens in the fight against Cuba.
Bay of PigsCover-up • Kennedy had withdrew additional air strikes prior to the 1st invasion. (Deniable plausibility) • When the 1st invasion was a disaster, he refused naval invasions He wanted to avoid a war with Cuba. • He tried to make it look like an internal Cuban invasion.
Bay of PigsCover-up • Adlai Stevenson (UN Secertary) says the assaults were carried out by Cubans not US and shows him the photos of the “fake” flown by “Juan Garcia” • Stevenson didn’t realize he was lied to about the plane by the CIA. • The CIA and the presidency weren’t on the same page. • Kennedy forces Allen Dulles into retirement (head of CIA) and appoints his own man, John McCone
Bay of PigsAftermath • Kennedy Administration humiliated • This invasion violated the OAS charter because the USA got involved in another nation’s affairs. • USA relations with Cuba deteriorated quickly. • Soviet-Cuban relations and aid to Cuba strengthened rapidly • Kennedy then put his brother Robert Kennedy in charge of “Operation Mongoose” • He wanted someone he could trust this time.
Operation Mongoose • This was a secret operation of psychological and propaganda Warfare, and sabotage. • Stealth economic actions were also taken such as destroying sugar crops. • Many actions and plans were hatched. • Some were real • Some were fake used as propaganda or to “justify our retaliation” • None were really effective.
Operation MongooseExamples • There were many attempts/ideas to assassinate Castro. • Lacing his cigars with poison • Harpooning him when he swam • Explosive seashells in his favorite diving spots • Spraying his broadcast studio with hallucinogens before his speeches • Lacing his clothes with thallium salts (cause his beard to fall out) • All of these were failures
Berlin and Kennedy Graphic Organizer
The Cuban Missile Crisis • Kennedy didn’t want to go to war with Cuba. • As long as Soviets did not put weapons in Cuba that were direct threats to USA (nukes) • 1962 Castro and Khrushchev decided to secretly put medium & intermediate nuclear missiles in Cuba. (TBM) • Oct. 14th 1962 a US spy plane spotted Soviet Nuclear missile sites in Cuba.
The Cuban Missile Crisis • Kennedy gathered 13 of his closest advisors to determine a course for action to have these Missiles removed. (Headed by Robert Kennedy) • Khrushchev & Castro did NOT know that the USA spotted the Missile sites. • K & C did NOT know that JFK convened a secret group of advisers to determine any action at all. • Even the US Media hadn’t known that anything was up……………..yet
The Cuban Missile Crisis Response Ideas • 1. Do nothing. • No chance everyone thought the missiles had to go. • 2. Take out missile sites with air attacks. • Robert Kennedy said no. Too Pearl Harbor-ish and he didn’t’ want that on his brothers Presidential record. • 3. Use diplomatic pressure to get the soviets to remove the missiles. • Figured this wouldn’t’ work either because the Soviets would then require us to give up concessions in Berlin before they would remove them.
The Cuban Missile Crisis Response Ideas • 4. Full scale Military Invasion: • Would make the USA seem too “trigger happy” and JFK didn’t want that. • Also if they didn’t react to us killing the Russians in Cuba they would take action in Berlin or the USA. • 5. A Naval Blockade of Cuba. • This was decided the best action. • It would essentially quarantine off Cuba so no ships carrying Nuclear Warheads or equipment to complete the Missile sites could get in.
The Cuban Missile Crisis • This gave the USA and Soviets some flexibility. • OCT 22nd 1962: The Blockade goes into action. • Kennedy goes on TV to inform the USA & Soviet Union of the situation. • He demanded dismantling & removal of the missile sites. • KENNEDY ADDRESS CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
The Cuban Missile Crisis • Stated that any nuclear missile launch from Cuba against any nation would be an attack by the Soviet Union on the USA and the USA would go full bore response with Nuclear Weapons. • 5 days of tension resulted. • Khrushchev denied the existence of missile sites • More Soviet ships steamed toward Cuba carrying equipment for the completion of the missile sites.
The Cuban Missile Crisis • 2 days after the “blockade” (OCT 24th) the USA launched B-52 bombers carrying nuclear warheads with orders to take out the ships if they tried to run the blockade. • USA went to DEFCON 3 • The Soviet ships turned back.
The Cuban Missile Crisis • Oct 25th.Kennedy backs the quarantine line up further and takes the USA to DEFCON 2 (only time in US History) • Kennedy sends a letter to Khrushchev stating this is his responsibility for this crisis because of his weapon building in Cuba.
The Cuban Missile Crisis • Oct. 26th. Khrushchev “supposedly” sent a message to Kennedy stating he would remove the weapon sites from Cuba in exchange for not invading Cuba. • Kennedy Accepted • Khrushchev then sent a 2nd proposal stating that he also wanted the USA to remove their Jupiter missiles from Turkey and Italy. • Kennedy didn’t like this 2nd request. • He sent a message that he accepted the 1st request and played like he never got the 2nd request.
The Cuban Missile Crisis • Oct. 27th. “Black Saturday” • An American U-2 spy plane was shot down over Cuba and the pilot (Major Rudolf Anderson) was killed. • Kennedy’s message to Khrushchev that he will end the quarantine and promises not to invade Cuba if Khrushchev removes the missiles. • The missile sites were now fully operational and Kennedy figures to take them out shortly. • The Cubans/Soviets had made the 1st strike on the USA killing Anderson. (WAR WAS IMMINENT)
The Cuban Missile Crisis • Oct. 27th. “Black Saturday” • Attorney General Robert Kennedy meets with Soviet Ambassador Dobrynin and says that if the soviets agree to remove the missiles from Cuba then the USA will remove it’s Jupiter missiles from Turkey and Italy BUT… • The Soviets can NOT make this information public.
The Cuban Missile Crisis • Robert Kennedy says if the Soviets make this info public the deal is off and most likely the US will strike. • Robert Kennedy gives Dobrynin till the 28th (24 hours) to have a decision. If not the USA would most likely strike.
The Cuban Missile Crisis • Oct 28th. Khrushchev sends a message to Kennedy agreeing to the deal. • Without consulting with Cuba the Soviet Union starts dismantling the missile sites. • Cuba makes 5 demands to the USA, the USA rejects them all. • Weeks later the USA starts removing their Jupiter missiles from Turkey. • The crisis of WW III is averted. • Kennedy stood up to the Soviets and the Soviets backed down. • Moral victory for the USA in the Cold War.
The Cuban Missile Crisis“Aftermath” • Kennedy and Khrushchev decided to move towards co-existence” rather then confrontation. • A direct “hotline” was established between the 2 leaders. • Also known as the Red Telephone.
The Cuban Missile Crisis“Aftermath” • Kennedy states in a speech a year later at American University that: • All the worlds problems don’t necessarily need an American answer. • July 25th 1963 USA and Soviets sign the NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY: • Banning all atmospheric and underwear nuclear weapons testing. • This began the softening of relations between the Soviets and USA.
Kennedy & the Space Program Project Mercury • 1st Human Space Flight Program in the USA. • 1959-1963 • 7 military test pilots became the first astronauts in US history. • Notables: John Glenn, Alan Shepard • Dec 4th 1959---Sam the Monkey was launched for an 11 minute flight. Returned safely. • May 5th 1961 Alan Shepard was launched into a suborbital flight (15 min)
Kennedy & the Space Program Project Mercury • Feb 20th 1962 John Glenn launched inside Friendship 7 for a 5 hour orbital flight. • Orbited the earth 3x • July 20th 1969 Apollo 11 landed on the Moon. • Neil Armstrong • Buzz Aldrin • Michael Collins • Stayed aboard the shuttle
Kennedy sacrifices for the Economy • 1962 Steel workers were prepared to strike. • Kennedy’s secretary of Labor helped avoid a strike. • Steel workers accepted a small pay raise and the Steel industry promised not to raise prices of steel to the consumers (American public) • Kennedy praised the Steel Industry for settling this dispute. • About a week later US Steel announced steel prices would rise by $6 per ton.
Kennedy sacrifices for the Economy • Kennedy was irate and decided to put political pressure on the steel industry to retract the price hike. • The FTC announced it would look into the Steel industry for price fixing. (illegal activity) • Robert Kennedy stated he would pursuit antitrust activity against the Steel industry (illegal activity) • Steel industry got the message and retracted their price increase. • JFK won but the industry leaders resented him and this would ultimately hurt him for reelection.
Kennedy sacrifices for the Economy • Congress rejected most of Kennedy’s economic plans. • 2 major economic breakthroughs during JFK’s administration. • 1.OECD Treaty 1961 • Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development. • Support sustainable economic growth • Boost employment • Raise living standards • Maintain financial stability • Assist other countries' economic development • Contribute to growth in world trade
Kennedy sacrifices for the Economy • 2.Trade Expansion Act 1963: • This allowed closer trade with European Common Market Countries. • It reduced tariffs in these nations up to 50%. • Trade increased significantly because of this. • This lead the way to GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)
Civil Rights • During Kennedy’s campaign in 1960 he made it known he was for Civil Rights. • He promised to end segregation in federal funded housing projects. • This helped him win the black vote. • The Kennedys also helped get Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. released from jail during JFK’s campaign. • JFK and Robert Kennedy helped get Martin Luther King released from prison.
GOT MLK? Brief history of events of MLK’s arrestssss. (in relation to JFK) • May 1960 gets arrested from driving without a license in Georgia….Had a license in Alabama though. • Oct 19th 1960 arrested for being part of a sit-in at Rich’s lunch counter in Atlanta Georgia. • Oct 25th 1960 sent to prison in GA for his parole violation from May. • Oct. 26th 1960 Robert Kennedy calls GA’s governor to arrange MLK’s release from prison.
Key Civil Rights Demonstrations in 1960 Feb 1st 1960: Woolworth’s Lunch Counter Sit In.