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Digestion Topic 6.1, H2, H3

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Digestion Topic 6.1, H2, H3. Topic 6.1. 6.1.1 Explain why digestion of large food molecules is essential. Hydrolysis (water-splitting) is the reaction used to break down large organic molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins). Enzymes are needed for these reactions.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
Digestion

Topic 6.1, H2, H3

slide3
6.1.1 Explain why digestion of large food molecules is essential.

Hydrolysis (water-splitting) is the reaction used to break down large

organic molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins). Enzymes are

needed for these reactions.

slide5
6.1.3 State the source, substrate, products and optimum pH conditions for one amylase, one protease and one lipase.
slide8
6.1.5 Outline the function of the stomach, small intestine and large intestine.

Stomach

  • Hydrochloric acid in the stomach lowers the pH to around 2,
  • killing bacteria and denaturing proteins.
  • Pepsin enzyme starts protein digestion.
  • Muscular actions aid mechanical digestion.
  • Stretch receptors in the muscular wall triggers release of
  • enzymes.
slide11
6.1.6 Distinguish between absorption and assimilation.

Absorption and Assimilation

Digestion breaks down large food molecules into smaller molecules.

Absorption is the uptake of these molecules into the blood.

Once in the blood, they are carried to the tissues where they are

assimilated – taken in to be used.

slide12
6.1.7 Explain how the structure of the villus is related to its role in absorption and transport of the products of digestion.
slide13
6.1.7 Explain how the structure of the villus is related to its role in absorption and transport of the products of digestion.
slide16
H2.1 State that digestive juices are secreted into the alimentary canal by glands, including salivary glands, gastric glands in the stomach wall, the pancreas and the wall of the small intestine.
slide17
H2.1 State that digestive juices are secreted into the alimentary canal by glands, including salivary glands, gastric glands in the stomach wall, the pancreas and the wall of the small intestine.
slide24
H2.4 Outline the control of digestive juice secretion by nerves and hormones, using the example of secretion of gastric juice.
slide25
H2.5 Outline the role of membrane-bound enzymes on the surface of epithelial cells in the small intestine in digestion.
slide26
H2.5 Outline the role of membrane-bound enzymes on the surface of

epithelial cells in the small intestine in digestion.

slide28
H2.7 Explain why pepsin and trypsin are initially synthesized as inactive precursors and how they are subsequently activated.

Pepsin and trypsin are _________. If they were secreted as active enzymes,

they would cause damage to the exocrine cells (_____________).

They are instead secreted as inactive precursors (_______________ and

____________), which are harmless. The enzymes become activated under

the right conditions.

slide29
H2.7 Explain why pepsin and trypsin are initially synthesized as inactive precursors and how they are subsequently activated.
slide30
H2.8 Discuss the roles of gastric acid and Helicobacter pylori in the development of stomach ulcers and stomach cancers.
slide31
H2.9 Explain the problem of lipid digestion in a hydrophilic medium and the role of bile in overcoming this.
slide33
H3.1 Draw and label a diagram showing a transverse section of the ileum as seen under a light microscope.
slide34
H3.1 Draw and label a diagram showing a transverse section of the ileum as seen under a light microscope.
slide35
H3.2 Explain the structural features of an epithelial cell of a villus as seen in electron micrographs, including microvilli, mitochondria, pinocytotic vesicles and tight junctions.

Epithelial cells are adapted to ___________________of digested food

molecules in the ileum. ______________ provide added control of the

movement of molecules.

slide36
H3.3 Explain the mechanisms used by the ileum to absorb and transport food, including facilitated diffusion, active transport, and endocytosis.
slide37
H3.3 Explain the mechanisms used by the ileum to absorb and transport food, including facilitated diffusion, active transport, and endocytosis.
slide38
H3.3 Explain the mechanisms used by the ileum to absorb and transport food, including facilitated diffusion, active transport, and endocytosis.
slide39
H3.3 Explain the mechanisms used by the ileum to absorb and transport food, including facilitated diffusion, active transport, and endocytosis.
slide40
H3.3 Explain the mechanisms used by the ileum to absorb and transport food, including facilitated diffusion, active transport, and endocytosis.
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