Geographical Names • You know that a proper noun names a particular person, place, or thing and that a proper noun always begins with a capital letter. • Therefore, you must capitalize proper nouns from geography. Do not capitalize small words like the and of.
Capitalize cities, states, countries, and continents. • Chicago • Texas • Austria • South America
Capitalize bodies of water and geographical features. • Ohio River • White Mountains • Gulf of Mexico
Capitalize the names of areas. Do not capitalize directions. • The Southwest • the Middle East • Central Asia • We traveled south along the coast, then east.
Capitalize streets and highways. • Route 66 • Wall Street • Avenue of the Stars
Capitalize buildings, bridges, and monuments. • Fort Knox • World Trade Center • Brooklyn Bridge
You can form a proper adjective from a proper noun. Capitalize proper adjectives.
Which words should be capitalized? • The egyptian museum in cairo has many treasures. • Egypt and the suez canal are part of the middle east. • Aswan is a city in the nile valley in southern egypt. • I visited the institute of africa on elm road. • An exhibition of african art included carved masks.
Titles, Organizations, Dates, and Subjects • Other proper nouns that you should capitalize include titles, names of organizations, historical events and periods, certain dates, and certain subjects.
Capitalize titles for people. Do not capitalize titles if they are used alone as common nouns. • Captain Ahab • Dr. Kaplan • Father • The doctor will see you now. • My uncle is the president.
Capitalize organizations, institutions, and businesses. • United League • Tampa High School • Dallas Symphony • Ted’s Garage • Hirsch Institute • Branford Company
Capitalize languages and specific school subjects followed by a number. Do not capitalize general school subjects. • English • social studies • Biology I • science • Algebra 2 • math
Capitalize historical events, periods of time, and documents • Boston Tea Party • Roaring Twenties • Revolutionary War • Gettysburg Address • Age of Reason • the Constitution
Capitalize days, months, and holidays, but not seasons • Monday • spring • November • Fourth of July • autumn • winter
What words should be capitalized? • 6. In history 1, we are studying the civil war. • 7. The gettysburg address was delivered by president lincoln. • 8. Jefferson davis was the president of the confederacy. • 9. General lee appeared at appomattox court house in april 1865. • 10. Lee became president of washington college after the war.
Write the incorrect sentences, adding capital letter where needed. If a sentence is already correct, write correct. • 11. The exhibit runs from Thursday, september 4, through tuesday, december 30. • 12. The museum of science will remain open on memorial day. • 13. Every fall and spring, the museum has a special exhibit. • 14. It is held by the world ocean society on clinton avenue. • 15. The current exhibit is on the world’s natural waterways. • 16. Research by the national science foundation is included.
Write the incorrect sentences, adding capital letter where needed. If a sentence is already correct, write correct. • 17. Interest in science increased in the middle ages. • 18. Today professor wyman is taking the geography 101 class of bentley university to the exhibit. • 19. Other geography classes will visit during the spring break. • 20. The atlantic ocean is half the size of the pacific ocean. • 21. The atlantic was named for the atlas mountains of africa.
Write the incorrect sentences, adding capital letter where needed. If a sentence is already correct, write correct. • 22. There are mountain ranges under the ocean. • 23. The tallest mountains on land are the himalayas. • 24. The george washington bridge spans the hudson river. • 25. From the bridge, you can see the world trade center.