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Monotheist Religions and Democratic Ideals
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  1. Monotheist Religions and Democratic Ideals Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Prologue Section 2

  2. Judaism • Hebrews: the people who came to be known later as Jewish ● Torah: The holy book of the Jewish faith The Torah are the first 5 books of the Old Testament in the Christian Bible

  3. Judaism • The world’s first Monotheistic religion: • Monotheism: Belief in and worship of only one god • Other cultures around Hebrews were still Polytheists: belief in many gods

  4. Judaism • Prophet Abraham: 2000 BC begins the Jewish faith Judaism: first religion to preach the need to live a morally good life

  5. Judaism • Preached: each person had dignity and worth based on the fact they were born • Preached: Each human possessed moral freedom; Free Will • Each individual is • responsible for their own moral decisions

  6. Judaism • Greeks and Romans: believed people had dignity and worth only if they could reason and/or contribute to the greatness of society • This is contrast to Jewish ideals: each person had worth based on the fact they were alive!

  7. Hebrew Code • Laws that govern the Jewish faith • Focused on the demand of ethical and moral behavior • Included demands on social and religious behavior: rulers were subject too • Stated that each individual had to choose between good and evil and answer for those decisions in the afterlife

  8. Prophets They emerged in the 8th Century BC People are capable of high moral standards Help those in need Jewish people believed they were Teachers and messengers from God Preached against war, oppression, and greed Argued for people to oppose injustice and inequality

  9. Christianity • Jesus of Nazareth: born sometime between 6-4 BC • Both a Jew and a Roman subject • Became a Jewish rabbi: Preacher • Stressed the need for Monotheism: Belief in one god ● Preached the need for each individual to have a personal relationship with God

  10. Jesus of Nazareth • Stressed the importance of loving one’s neighbor; treating them as one wants them self to be treated; Also stressed the importance of one loving their enemies • Stressed the need to repent sins and reject wickedness; Taught followers that eternal happiness would be achieved to those who took care of weaker citizens and lived moral life

  11. Jesus Christ • Upon his death he became known as Jesus Christ: Greek title for “One who is anointed” • Actual name was Yehoshua ben Yosef : Hebrew for: “Joshua, son of Joseph” • New religion of Christianity spread after his death (ca. 32 AD)

  12. Paul the Apostle • 10-67 AD • Was from modern-day Turkey

  13. Paul the Apostle • Spoke both Greek and Latin: greatly aided him in spreading Christianity throughout the Roman World 1st Century AD • Traveled from region to region teaching Christianity to Gentiles (non-Jews) Before Paul the first Christians were in fact Jews

  14. Paul the Apostle • Christianity was a religion anyone could join: different from early Judaism which was only for ethnic Hebrews ● Paul was responsible for many Gentiles converting to Christianity stressed equality of all human beings, salvation in the afterlife: As Christians and Jews were expelled from homelands by Romans they spread Monotheistic beliefs to other parts of the world

  15. Islam • Monotheistic Religion • Founded by Prophet Muhammad ca. 609 AD • Islam: Arabic for “Surrender to God” • Muslim: Arabic for “One who surrenders” • Islam developed in modern-day Saudi Arabia

  16. Islam • Allah: Arabic for “God”

  17. Kaaba (Mecca, Saudi Arabia)Holiest Place on earth according to Islam • According to Islamic belief: Kaaba was built by Prophet Abraham to honor Allah (God)

  18. Islam • Teachings very similar to Judaism and Christianity • Dignity of all human beings • Brotherhood of all people • Belief in equality of all • Belief in acceptance and tolerance of all • From the same line of prophecy as Judaism and Christianity

  19. 5 Pillars of Islam • Belief in only one God: Allah • 5 times daily prayer, facing Mecca, Saudi Arabia • Giving Alms to the poor, based on income • Fast during daylight hours during the holy month of Ramadan • Hajj: Every Muslim must make a pilgrimage to Mecca

  20. Islam • Muslim rulers expected to follow same laws as Muslim citizens • Muslim rulers expected to obey 5 Pillars of Islam just as Muslim citizens • Judaism, Christianity, Islam share very similar ideals and contributed to rise in democratic ideals of equality, fairness, and justice