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  1. Biology I Mr. Galloway Chapters 29-33 The Kingdom Of Plants Recommended Websites:

  2. Feeding the WorldPeople Population = 6 billion today and growing. Scientists are developing more useful plants. How? Genetic engineering, selective breeding, etc. On farms, new more efficient “high-tech” machines and practices are used. Precision Farming with computers, technology for watering, fertilizing, management. Hydroponics – is a method to grow plants in solutions of nutrients instead of soil. * This is useful in areas where the soil is poor or rocky.s * But, hydroponics cost a lot of money to conduct.

  3. What does the Bible say about plants? Scripture never uses the Hebrew term “Nephesh” for plants. It is only used for creatures that can think, feel, experience joy, or suffer, such as animals and humans. Genesis 1:11-13  11 Then God said, "Let the earth bring forth grass, the herbthat yields seed, and the fruit treethat yields fruit according to its kind, whose seed is in itself, on the earth"; and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, the herbthat yields seed according to its kind, and the treethat yields fruit, whose seed is in itself according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 13 So the evening and the morning were the third day.

  4. Plants are organic (living) machines, designed by God for food, building materials, clothing, beauty, and the production of oxygen through photosynthesis. Genesis 1:29-31  29 And God said, "See, I have given you every herb that yields seed which is on the face of all the earth, and every tree whose fruit yields seed; to you it shall be for food. 30 Also, to every beast of the earth, to every bird of the air, and to everything that creeps on the earth, in which there is life, I have given every green herb for food"; and it was so. 31 Then God saw everything that He had made, and indeed it wasvery good. So the evening and the morning were the sixth day.

  5. God’s FloodDestroyedPlants • Some Plants Survived: Plants & seeds survived both in the Ark and outside. • Some Died Out (Extinction): Many plants with essential amino acids (complete proteins) were wiped out. • Then vegetarianism was no longer a viable way to get all necessary nutrients.

  6. Only after sin, separation from God, and the globally catastrophic flood did God give permission for man to humanely kill and eat nephesh creatures animals. Yet even then, God commanded man not to eat the blood, because it represented the creatures “nephesh” life, which can feel, think, and suffer. Genesis 9:1-4 “1 So God blessed Noah and his sons, and said to them: "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth.* 2 And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be on every beast of the earth, on every bird of the air, on all that move on the earth, and on all the fish of the sea. They are given into your hand. 3 Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you. I have given you all things, even as thegreen herbs. 4 But you shall not eat flesh with its life, that is, its blood.”

  7. When Jesus comes again and restores a new earth and new heaven, the pain, fear, suffering and death of nephesh creatures will no longer exist. The wolf and lion will “eat grass like the ox”, and will lay down peacefully with the lamb. (Isaiah 11 and 65)

  8. Plant Cell Structure:

  9. Remember that “plant-like protists” did not have differentiated tissues.But True PLANTS do:

  10. Plant Growth Characteristics

  11. General Plant Characteristics: * All are multicellular, autotrophiceukaryotes. * All have cell walls * Most live on land, so. . . . . . . Living on LAND requires special adaptations to survive: 1. Obtaining Water and Other Materials from the soil 2. Retaining water so it doesn’t evaporate out of the plant - Cuticle = waxy, waterproof layer covering leaves

  12. 3. Transporting materials (food, water, minerals, etc.) throughout the plant. - Tissues = groups of similar cells that perform specific functions. - Vacular Tissues = are special transporting tissues in “vascular” plants. (They are tube like structures for moving food and water inside the plant.) 4. Support is needed to keep the plant standing and growing up to reach the sunlight. - Vascular tissues in vascular plants give strength. 5. Special Reproduction is another adaptation for plants to live on land . . . . . .

  13. ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS • For sexually reproducing multicellular organisms such as plants and animals, the life cycle requires that diploid cells divide by meiosis to create haploidcells. Haploid cells then fuse to recreate the diploid number and a neworganism. • Alternation of generations refers to the occurrence in the plant life cycle of both a multicellulardiploidorganism and a multicellularhaploidorganism, each giving rise to the other. • This is in contrast to animals, in which the only multicellular phase is the diploid organism (such as the human man or woman), whereas the haploid phase is a single egg or sperm cell.

  14. Alternation of generations is easiest to understand by considering the fern. The large, leafy fern is the diploid organism. On the undersurface of its fronds or leaves, its cells undergo meiosis to create haploid cells. However, these cells do not immediately unite with others to recreate the diploid state. Instead, they are shed as spores and germinate into small haploid organisms. Because the diploid organism creates spores, it is called the sporophyte generation of the life cycle. Upon reaching maturity, the haploid organism creates haploid egg and sperm cells (gametes) by mitosis. Because the haploid organism creates gametes, it is called the gametophyte generation of the life cycle. The male gametes (sperm) are then released and swim to the female egg. Fusion of the gametes creates the new diploid sporophyte, completing the life cycle.

  15. ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS. This type of life cycle, which alternates between the Gametophyte Phase and the Sporophyte Phase. As an adaptation of plants, this cycle provides for sexual reproduction, which ensures there will be genetic recombination in plants.

  16. Details of ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS • * Plant life cycles are different from most animals.* Plants have TWO stages or generations in their cycles. • - SporophyteStage: the plant is diploid (2n) and produces haploid (1n) spores. • * Spores are tiny cells that grow into the next stage. • - Gametophyte Stage the plant is haploid (1n) and produces two kinds of haploid sex cells (sperm and eggs) • * Gametes are what the haploid sex cells are called. • * Then sexual reproduction occurs by fertilization, when a sperm cell unites with an egg cell.Zygote is the term for the new fertilized egg, which grows into a new plant.


  18. Nonvascular - Seedless plants • Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts • * No vascular tissue (no tube like transport pipes) • * Have no roots, no flowers • * Without roots or vascular tissue, these plants must grow low to the ground and near moist areas. • Water and food flows slowly from cell to cell, and they are not strong enough to grow tall.

  19. Spanish “Moss” is NOT a moss! The “Spanish Moss” hanging from our cypress and oak trees is NOT really a true moss.

  20. Why Spanish “Moss” is NOT a real moss! A true moss is a tiny green plant reproducing with spores, not with flowers, fruits and seeds, the way Spanish “moss” does. Spanish Moss is actually a member of the Pineapple Family, the only member of that huge, mainly tropical family in our area. (Photos by Dennis Adams)

  21. Spanish “moss” has flowers, so it’s NOT moss

  22. True Mosses: (Over 10,000 species) * Structure – rhizoids are rootlike structures as anchors, which absorb water and nutrients. - Gametophyte generation is the common green fuzzy moss - Sporophyte generation grows out of the gametophyte, and is a skinny stalk with a capsule full of spores at the top.

  23. Sporophyte Gametophyte Rhizoid

  24. True moss

  25. True moss

  26. Importance of Mosses – * Peat Moss containing sphagnum moss is used by gardeners. * Bogs are where sphagnum moss grows naturally. - Bog water is so acidic that no bacteria grows to decompose dead mosses. - So the mosses pile up at the bottom in a thick mat call Peat. * Mosses are pioneer plants like lichens, meaning they are the first to grow in areas where forest burned out or volcanoes erupted. Wind blown soil catches in them and builds up for other plants to grow.

  27. Bog preserved heads of a deceased humans

  28. Liverworts (over 8,000 species) are shaped sort of like a human liver. * Not mosses * Grow flat along the ground, or on moist rocks. Hornworts (less than 100 species) * Not mosses * look like liverworts, but have tiny horn shaped sporophytes growing out of them. * grow in moist soil

  29. Liverworts

  30. Hornworts

  31. Vascular - Seedless Plants: Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails Depiction of giant, extinct ferns Giant Extinct Ferns

  32. Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails What happened to the giant, extinct ferns we now see buried in rock as fossils? * They were buried rapidly during the global flood of Noah’s day. * They did not decay because they were covered immediately in sediment. * These fossils are not millions of years old as the textbook authors believe. * Please see the evidence presented by scientists at

  33. Fern Structure:

  34. Structures of a Fern Frond Pinnae Stipe Rhizome

  35. Fern Characteristics: * Vascular Tissue: - Solves the need for support and transportation of water and nutrients. - Strength is added like bundling a bunch of straws together. * Spores (Not Seeds): - These plants release spores that grow into gametophytes, which produce egg cells and sperm cells, which need lots of water for fertilization to occur.

  36. Vascular Tissue (Two Types) 1. Phloem to transport (move) food made in leaves to the rest of the plant. 2. Xylem to transport water and nutrients from the roots into the plant.

  37. Vascular Tissues Illustrated in a Carrot (Not a fern)

  38. Ferns: * Fossil records are dated by radiometric methods that are very unreliable. (See Dr. Russell Humphrey’s articles on * Structure – true stems, roots, and leaves - fronds are fern leaves - roots and stems grow underground to absorb water and nutrients - leaves grow above ground to absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide - some young leaves are curled and called fiddleheads, until maturity as they uncurl

  39. Reproduction in Ferns: • Sporophyte stage is the common fern with its fronds (leaves). • Under the fronds are spore cases filled with spores. • Wind and water carry the spores, which develop into the gametophyte stage. • Fern gametophytes are tiny plants that grow low to the ground. • * FernImportance: • - houseplants, some are eaten, some serve symbiotically in rice farmer fields

  40. Fern fiddle-heads Fern plant and spore cases

  41. Club Mosses (not true mosses) and Horsetails: tiny needlelike branches * (Vascular Tissue, but spores to reproduce, so they are seedless) * Very small and very few species left today. * Some club mosses look like tiny pine tree branches growing out of the ground. (ground pine or princess pine) * Horsetails (only 30 species left)

  42. Club Moss Horsetail

  43. Characteristics of Seed Plants Two Characterisitics: 1 - Vascular Tissue 2 - Seeds to Reproduce Example: Dandelion’s “seed head” = hundreds of fruits, each with a seed.

  44. Seeds = structures that contain a young plant inside a protective covering. * Seed plants do not need water in the environment to reproduce. - Sperm cells are delivered directly to the area where the eggs are. - Fertilized eggs (zygotes) develop into seeds. - The seed covering keeps it from drying out.

  45. Seed Parts: 1. Embryo = the zygote, which is a tiny plant inside the covering. 2. Cotyledons = one or two seed leaves which store food for growth. 3. Seed Coat = keeps it from drying out (some last thousands of years).