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Sociology for Health care Professionals

Sociology for Health care Professionals

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Sociology for Health care Professionals

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  1. Sociology for Health care Professionals Dr Kithsiri Edirisinghe MBBS , MSc, MD ( Medical Administration)

  2. Course Objectives - SOCI 121 • To obtain a clear picture of various social structures in the world, with a view to interact more efficiently when dealing with clients/ patients from different cultures. Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  3. Society ???? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pRUGvArWXLk Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  4. The Sociological Perspective OBSERVATIONS ARE CERTAINLY IMPACTED BY THE PERSONAL PERSPECTIVES THROUGH WHICH PEOPLE COME TO VIEW THE WORLD

  5. Why study SOCIOLOGY • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GG1SaSOgbXo&feature=related

  6. COURSE DESCRIPTION • Allocated total number of hours is 45hrs • Methods of instructions - lectures, debates and group discussions • Performances are evaluated by through quizzes, assignments and visas during the sessions.  • Term exam papers include MCQ, structured essays . Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  7. REFERENCES • David,M.N.,Sociology-Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life, 4th ed, Pine Forge, 2002 • Roger, E., The ways of Religion-An introduction to the Major Traditions, Oxford, 1999  Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  8. The Topics

  9. Introduction to Sociology • Culture, Society and the Individual  • Family  • Marriage  • Socialization  • Gender and Sexuality • Social Interaction and Everyday life  • Stratification and Class Structure  • Ethnicity and Race • Deviance and Crime • Education • Religion • Population Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  10. What is Sociology • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uPwY4TpQkLs • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=azWs-ESXZrk&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E55KwzjRVBc&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=azWs-ESXZrk&feature=related • ttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NnJWv58updU&feature=related Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  11. 1. Introduction to Sociology What is Sociology Definitions of Sociology Importance of Study Sociology Time allocated 02hrs

  12. What is Sociology ? • Sociology is the science (-ology) of society (socio-) “Sociology is an extended commentary on the experiences of daily life, an interpretation which feeds on other interpretations and is in turn fed into them” --Zygmunt Bauman Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  13. Origins of sociology • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-geyOIMDTw&feature=related Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  14. Sociology can help us make sense of our experiences by taking our accounts and sharing or comparing them with others. • The sociological perspective is constituted of stories told by individuals and groups and shapes how we establish our worldviews • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-hysCK7uHBc Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  15. Sociology can help us make sense of our experiences by taking our accounts and sharing or comparing them with others. • The sociological perspective is constituted of stories told by individuals and groups and shapes how we establish our worldviews • We can examine social structures (patterns of organization that constrain human behavior) by observation of the sociological perspective. • Social structures • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CgxM2kTw1WU&feature=related Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  16. Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OsrXLiragCk&feature=results_main&playnext=1&list=PL200BE5F5424C2D6F • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pSs6itQDZMw&feature=related Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  17. Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness a. Functionalist Approach http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_EgCBf_mrkg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6-p1Yvx4bPU&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kTNRM6XkvOs&feature=related • “Being sick” must be controlled so that not too many people are released from their societal responsibilities • Sick role:societal expectations about attitudes and behavior of a person viewed as being ill Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  18. Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness b. Conflict Approach • Critical of growing role of medicine as major institution of social control • The Medicalization of Society • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdxFqVS18Qc&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m_ISCecNBac&feature=related Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  19. Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness • c. Interactionist Approach • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3CPIBVo2l1I • Studies the roles played by health care professionals and patients • Asserts patients may play an active role in positive or negative health Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  20. Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness d. Labeling Approach http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r-UBjL1zlgM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=830FBsmpTjg • The designations healthyand ill generally involve social definition • Disagreements continue in the medical community over whether a variety of life experiences are illnesses Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  21. Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness Figure 19-1. Infant Mortality Rates in Selected Countries, 2004 Source: Haub 2004 Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  22. Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness Table 19-1. Major Perspectives on Health and Illness Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  23. Activity 01 Discuss your views on sociology and its important to you and people around you ! You are requested to forward this before next Tuesday Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  24. 2. Culture, Society and the Individual What is culture Layers of culture SEVEN Elements of Culture Organization of a culture

  25. What is culture??? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eixOqz9MtKY&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7VQXH0_emEk&feature=related Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  26. Definitions of culture • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=57KW6RO8Rcs&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3iCVUNGiN-I&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wt2qtz0B7mQ&feature=related Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  27. Culture “A system of values and norms that are shared among a group of people and that when taken together constitute a design for living.” -Hofstede, Namenwirth and Weber- Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  28. A culture is….. • “is complex totality which includes : • Knowledge • belief • art • law • morals • custom • And any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society."  Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  29. The Culture • Layers of culture • Culture and Society • Is Culture Limited to Humans? • Seven Elements of Culture Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  30. A. Three Layers of culture • Principle Cultural traditions that distinguish your specific society. • language, traditions, and beliefs that set each of these peoples apart from others. Sinhaleese , Tamils , Muslims • Subculture – Subculture of the main culture - their language, food, and other traditions • Tamils – Jaffna & Indians • Sinhalese – Upcountry and low country • Learned behavior - Cultural universals.  These are learned behavior patterns that are shared by all of humanity collectively.  No matter where people live in the world, they share these universal traits. Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  31. SEVEN Elements of culture 1. Language. 2. Norms 3. Values 4. Beliefs and ideologies. 5. Social Collectives. 6. Cultural Integration. & Statuses 7. ROLES Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  32. 1. Language • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w5ssFOsl-Bg Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  33. Elements of culture • Language. • Language is a set of symbols used to assign and communicate meaning. It enables us to name or label the things in our world so we can think and communicate about them. Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  34. 2. Norms • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5_HrzDoSHn4&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f-wpN5UUxPs&feature=related Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  35. 2. Norms • Norms as humanly created rules for behavior. The production of norms. • The need for orderly, stable, predictable interactions . • “Social rules that govern people’s actions toward one and another” Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  36. 2. Types of Norms • Folkways • Mores • Taboos • Rituals Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  37. a. Folkways http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4Ed2dHdznE&feature=relate • routine conventions of everyday life • actions of little moral significance • dress code, eating habits, time orientation, rituals, etc. • violating folkways will not be considered evil or bad Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  38. b. Mores. • Mores are norms of morality. Breaking mores, like attending church in the nude, will offend most people of a culture. Mores, in sociology, are any given society's particular norms, virtues, or values. Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  39. c. Taboos. • A taboo is a strong socialprohibition (or ban) relating to any area of human activity or social custom that is sacred and or forbidden based on moral judgment, religious beliefs and or scientific consensus. Breaking the taboo is usually considered objectionable or abhorrent by society. Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  40. d. Rituals. • A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value. It may be prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. The term usually excludes actions which are arbitrarily chosen by the performers. Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  41. 3. Values • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yputDOL74Mk

  42. 3. Values • Form the bedrock of a culture • Provide the context for establishing and justifying a society’s norms and attitudes toward: • individual freedom • democracy • truth and justice • honesty • loyalty • social obligations • role of women • love and sex • marriage Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  43. 4. Beliefs and ideologies. Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  44. Beliefs • Beliefs are the things members of a culture hold to be true. They are the "facts" accepted by all or most members. Beliefs are not limited to religious statements, but include all the things a people know and accept as true, including common sense everyday knowledge. Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  45. b. Ideologies • Ideologies are integrated and connected systems of beliefs. Sets of beliefs and assumptions connected by a common theme or focus. They are often are associated with specific social institutions or systems and serve to legitimize those systems.Some prominent American ideologies. Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  46. 5. Social Collectives. • Social collectives such as groups, organizations, communities, institutions, classes, and societies are also collectively produced symbolic social constructions. Social collectives are symbolic entities. They are defined into existence when people define themselves as a group or are defined as a group by others. They can and do become reified over time, such that they are seen and treated as real objective entities. However, they remain fundamentally symbolic entities and as such can be renegotiated and redefined. Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  47. 6.Cultural Integration. & Statuses •  Cultural integration refers to how interconnected, complimentary, and mutually supportive the various elements of culture are: • Diversity, complexity, and integration. • Variation within modern mass cultures. • Diversity in historical and cultural traditions. • Subcultures. • Counter-cultures. • Local cultures. Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  48. 7. Roles • Roles are norms specifying the rights and responsibilities associated with a particular status. The term role is often used to mean both a position in society and role expectations associated with it. • Roles define what a person in a given status can and should do, as well as what they can and should expect from others. Roles provide a degree of stability and predictability, telling how we should respond to others and giving us an idea of how others should respond to us. • Roles are negotiated and produced during interaction, and often become reified over time. However, roles can be renegotiated and changed. Role set, role strain, role conflict, and role transition.Roles, identity, and the self. Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  49. B. Norms “Social rules that govern people’s actions toward one and another” • Mores http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rWL_C2PWQ5w • norms seen as central to the functioning of a society • have much greater significance than folkways • violating mores can bring serious retribution • theft, adultery, incest, cannibalism Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011

  50. Characteristics of Culture • Learned behavior through: • observation • sharing and transferring • Accumulation of solutions to common problems by: • accident • learning • borrowing (Cultural Diffusion) • All elements are interrelated • Composed of explicit and implicit layers • Dynamic and evolutionary Sociology for health professionals IIHS 2011