Climate System Energy Balance. Kiehl and Trenberth. Review - CO 2 in atmosphere works just like water vapor. Lets in warming sunlight in the day when humidity is high heat is trapped and nights stay warm when humidity is low heat escapes and nights are cold
Kiehl and Trenberth
CO2 x 2 = -3.7 W/m2
(a) Reduce solar flux by 1.8%
(b) Increase planetary albedo by 3.5%
(marine cloud albedo by 13%)
sunlight deflected to miss Earth
starlight passing through flyers is also deflected, into donut rings
sunlight entering flyers
Exiting sunlight deflected
Paul Crutzen, Danielle B. Coleman
with additional thanks for advice to C. Amman, J. Kazil, D. Keith, M. Mills, O.B. Toon, T.M. WigleyGeo-Engineering Climate Change with Sulfate Aerosols
Fixed aerosol and greenhouse forcing at present day values Doubled CO2 (2XCO2)
Amelioration of Global Warming by Controlled Enhancement of Albedo and Longevity of Low-Level Maritime Clouds
John Latham (MMM / ASP, NCAR, USA) & Stephen Salter (U of Edinburgh, UK)
Tom Choularton, Keith Bower – University of Manchester, UK
Mike Smith, Alan Gadian – University of Leeds, UK
Idea: Advertently to enhance the Droplet Concentration in Low-level Maritime Stratocumulus Clouds, thereby increasing Cloud Albedo & Longevity - i.e. a cooling effect.
(Latham, 1990, 2000, Bower et al., 2006).
Solar flux diminution & albedo modification affect climate, but not atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Such schemes could buy time until CO2 reduced.
Elevated CO2 causes ocean surface acidification. So we would still need to reduce CO2 emissions.
3. By using more than one technique, there may be some scope for restraining CO2 levels and climate change independently.