Los Angeles Mission College. Child Development 62 Developmental Profiles: Pre-Birth Through age Eight Section: 0177 Instructor: Monica M. Moreno. What is the Developmental Profile of a child? . Definition of “Developmental Profile”.
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Los Angeles Mission College Child Development 62Developmental Profiles: Pre-Birth Through age Eight Section: 0177 Instructor: Monica M. Moreno
Definition of “Developmental Profile” Development: The act or process of developing; growth; progress: child development. Profile: A description of behavioral and personality traits of a person compared with accepted norms or standards. Developmental Profile: Charting the progress of behavioral, growth, and personality traits by norms and standards.
The five theories of development… • Maturational Theory: This theory focuses on a biological or nature approach to human development. Theorist Arnold Gesell argued that development was primarily dictated by internal forces of biologic and genetic origin.
The five theories of development… • Psychoanalytic Theory: The basis of this theory is that behavior is dictated by unconscious processes which are present at birth and other that develop as we grow. Sigmund Freud is the originator of this theory.
The five theories of development… • Psychosocial Theory: Erik Erikson expanded on Freud’s theory in the realm of personality development. Each developmental stage is faced with a conflict that we must resolve. Erikson introduced us to the eight states of human development. The first four stages addresses the early years.
The five theories of development… • Cognitive-developmental theory: Jean Piaget theorized that children build their own knowledge through active exploration of their own environment. Like Erikson, Piaget has stages of development. Piaget has four instead of eight. Those four are sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operations and formal operations.
The five theories of development… • Learning Theory: B.F. Skinner formulated the nurture or environmental approach to human development. Skinner believed we developed because of a series of learned behavior with the environment around us.
ALL 5 THEORY’S INFLUENCE DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY LEARNING THEORY PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY CONGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY
HUMAN DEVELOPMENTNature Vs. Nurture NATURE NURTURE
In order to understand observe and make assessments of children’s development… • We must understand basic principles of early learning and development. • Understand guidelines of growth and development from early stages to adolescence. • how to promote and support optimal development from infants to puberty.
Maslow contends, all children have essential physical and psychological needs that need to be met in order to survive and thrive. Physical needs Psychological needs • Adequate shelter and protection from harm: i.e. violence, neglect and preventable accidents. • Sufficient food that is nutritious and appropriate for the child’s age. • Adequate clothing and shoes suitable to age and climate of weather. • Preventive health care: i.e. health and dental care, treatment of physical and mental conditions, immunizations as prescribed for childhood illnesses. • Rest and activity, opportunity for indoor and outdoor play. • Affection and consistency, children need love and predictability in their lives. • Security and trust, children need to trust in the reliability of the adults care for them. • The adults must respond to children’s interaction with them. Exchanges of interaction must be reciprocal. • Appropriate expectations of the child’s ability.
Learning Needs • Play is an essential component of early learning. They need to be given ample opportunity for free play. The environment should always be free of hazards in order to give children ample opportunities to explore and experiment. • Assess to developmentally appropriate play materials. • Materials that are matched with the child’s ability. • Children must feel free of criticism as they learn new skills. • Adults are models for children and act in a manner that is appropriate. Especially in language, social interactions and ways of coping with stress. • Provide children an environment that is rich in literacy materials. Exposing children to language through spoken words, signs or written language.