Announcements Lab this week: Wear warm clothes for conifer walk Jim Brown Seminar Wed. 9 th - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Announcements Lab this week: Wear warm clothes for conifer walk Jim Brown Seminar Wed. 9 th PowerPoint Presentation
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Announcements Lab this week: Wear warm clothes for conifer walk Jim Brown Seminar Wed. 9 th
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Announcements Lab this week: Wear warm clothes for conifer walk Jim Brown Seminar Wed. 9 th

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  1. Announcements • Lab this week: • Wear warm clothes for conifer walk • Jim Brown Seminar • Wed. 9th • UC Theatre

  2. Coniferales (Conifers) 5 families worldwide, 3 in Montana Pinaceae - Pine Family Cupressaceae - Cypress Family Taxaceae - Yew Family

  3. Conifers - Pinaceae (Pine Family) Pinus - Pine Larix - Larch or Tamarack Tsuga - Hemlock Pseudotsuga - Douglas Fir Picea - Spruce Abies - Fir

  4. Larix - Larch • Key features • Deciduous needles in clusters • Small cones w/ 3-parted bracts P. monticola

  5. L. occidentalis Western Larch L. lyallii Subalpine Larch P. albicaulis

  6. Tsuga - Hemlock P. albicaulis T. heterophylla (coastal disjunct)

  7. Pseudotsuga menziesii - Douglas-fir P. monticola P. albicaulis

  8. Abies - Fir • Key features • Blunt evergreen needles • Barrel-shaped cones held upright • Cone scales dehisce (fall off) P. monticola P. albicaulis

  9. lasiocarpa Subalpine Fir grandis Grand Fir P. monticola P. albicaulis

  10. Picea - Spruce • Key features • Sharp needles • Papery cones hang down P. monticola P. albicaulis twig w/ pegs scaley bark

  11. P. engelmannii Engelmann Spruce P. glauca White Spruce P. monticola P. albicaulis

  12. Conifers - Pinaceae (Pine Family) Pinus - Pine Larix - Larch or Tamarack Tsuga - Hemlock Pseudotsuga - Douglas Fir Picea - Spruce Abies - Fir

  13. Cupressaceae - Cypress Family • Key features • Leaves usually scale-like (folded and flattened) • Female cones small, either woody or “berry-like” • Two genera in Montana • Thuja (large trees) • Juniperus (small trees or shrubs)

  14. Thuja plicata - Western Red Cedar Coastal disjunct found on moister western slopes in Rockies Female cones

  15. Juniperus - Juniper • Dioecious shrubs/small trees • Female cones berry-like J. scopulorum Rocky Mtn. Juniper J. communis Common Juniper • shrub/small tree • scale leaves • low shrub w/needles • worldwide distribution

  16. Taxaceae - Yew Family • Key features • Dioecious shrubs/small trees • Needles flattened; appear 2-ranked • No cone - seed surrounded by a fleshy aril • One genus/species in Montana (Taxus brevifolia)

  17. Taxus brevifolia - Pacific Yew Papery bark Coastal disjunct only in moist areas here (canyons etc.) Arils (only on females)

  18. Conifer Questions???? Pinaceae - Pine Family Cupressaceae - Cypress Family Taxaceae - Yew Family

  19. Moving on to angiosperms: the vast majority of plants Seed plants ~135 mya Ephedra Conifers Gingkos Cycads Angiosperms 600 species 257,000 species

  20. Plant life histories Different means to the same end: survival & reproduction

  21. Lifespan and timing of reproduction • Ideal plant strategy: • live forever • make lots of seeds every year Why not?

  22. Lifespan and timing of reproduction • Ideal plant strategy: • live forever • make lots of seeds every year • Why not? Limited resources (light, nutrients, water etc.) • tradeoff between survival/growth and reproduction (usually...)

  23. Lifespan and timing of reproduction • Life history strategies high adult mortality --> reproduce now! ex. weeds, vernal pool plants high seedling mortality --> just survive! ex. trees, grassland forbs

  24. Lifespan and timing of reproduction: herbs (woody trees and shrubs are all perennial by definition) Mimulus douglasii Oenothera biennis Balsamorhiza and Lupinus Annual Biennial Perennial • 1st year: flowers, dies • 1st year: makes rosette • 2nd year: flowers, dies • Lives for multiple years • May or may not flower in any year

  25. Lifespan and timing of reproduction iteroparity - reproduce repeatedly etc. semelparity- reproduce once, then die

  26. Lifespan and timing of reproduction Agave (Century Plant) extreme semelparity

  27. Plants are sessile and modular vs.

  28. Some consequences of being a plant • can make own food (photosynthesis) • can grow indefinitely & survive major damage BUT, can’t go look for a better place  local competition for resources  evolution of fungal/bacterial symbioses  evolution of seed dispersal mechanisms can’t go look for mates  evolution of pollination mechanisms

  29. Competition for light affects plant growth form  over evolutionary time  over individual lifespans

  30. terminal (apical) bud Angiosperm vegetative terminology internode axillary bud leaf! node stem

  31. terminal (apical) bud Angiosperm vegetative terminology internode axillary bud leaf! node stem or shoot opposite leaves alternate whorled

  32. Cauline leaves (on shoot) Angiosperm vegetative terminology Basal leaves (at base of shoot)

  33. Leaf parts Leaf venation margin midvein dichotomous pinnate blade petiole stipule palmate parallel

  34. Plant water relations Leaves need to uptake gas (CO2) for photosynthesis, but also need to minimize loss of H2O through leaves mesophyll w/chloroplasts vein w/vascular tissue (water , sugar ) stoma w/guard cells (regulates gas exchange) waxy cuticle (blocks water loss)

  35. Succulents (modified for water storage)

  36. Sagebrush foliage - Adaptation to dry/high sun conditions Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae)

  37. Leaf forms Leaf margins entire dentate simple unlobed simple lobed simple lobed (palmate) compound (palmate) compound (pinnate) compound (twice pinnate)

  38. How to figure out what is the leaf axillary bud is always at base of leaf (above the petiole)

  39. Roots • anchoring • water and nutrient absorption • water and carbohydrate storage Taproot Fibrous roots Adventitious roots

  40. Storage roots ?

  41. Modified stems rhizome = horizontal, rootlike stem shoot buds rhizome stem roots tuber (extra-starchy rhizome)

  42. Modified stems stolon = an aboveground horizontal stem with long internodes Fragaria Saxifraga plantlets

  43. Fragaria Saxifraga

  44. Asexual or clonal reproduction Modularity => a continuum between growth and reproduction Fragaria Saxifraga Definition of “individual” depends on perspective genetic individual --> “genet” growth unit --> “ramet”

  45. Saxifraga Populus tremuloides (Aspen)