Standard 6-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the transition ofhumans from nomadic life to settled life in the cradles ofcivilization.
6.1.1 Analyze the hunter-gatherer communities in regard to their geographic, social,and cultural characteristics, including adaptation to the natural environment.
Define hunter-gatherer communities and detail the characteristics that defined them. • hunter gatherers is the term used by anthropologists to describe a specific kind of lifestyle, that of all human beings until the invention of agriculture about 8000 years ago • hunter-gatherers hunt game and collect plant foods (called foraging) rather than grow or tend crops • hunter-gatherers tend to have non-hierarchical social structures • hunter-gatherers are nomadic
hunter gatherers live a subsistence lifestyle • they have little development of skills or specialized labor • they have low-population densities – usually in small tribes • the male puberty rite of passage often receives greater emphasis in hunter-gatherer societies than the other three ritual occasions celebrated in all human societies (birth ,marriage, and death). • hunter gatherers are sedentary when food is abundant
What do anthropologists call humans who lived before the discovery of agriculture?
Hunter-gathers were nomads when there was no food & sedentary when food was abundant.
An example of low-population density would be hunter-gatherers living in small tribes.
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Describe how hunter-gatherers adapted to their natural environment (example – the use of simple tools to construct shelter, hunt, and make clothes) • Prehistoric hunter-gatherers, such as roving bands of Cro-Magnons, increased their food supply by inventing tools. • Hunters crafted special spears that enabled them to kill game at greater distances. • Digging sticks helped food gatherers pry plants loose at the roots.
Toward the end of the Ice Age, early Americans were producing hunting technologies that enabled them to kill mammoths and other large Ice Age mammals. • Hunting tools were made of bone, ivory, stone and antler, and used the wood, hide, and fiber of a variety of plants and animals. • One of the most commonly used hunting tools was the spear point.
Crouched low to catch animals invented tools special spears How did early man adapt to his environment? Herded buffalo over cliffs Spear point Digging sticks Hunting tools were made of bone, ivory, stone and antler, and used the wood, hide, and fiber of a variety of plants and animals.
What kind of animal did hunter-gatherers kill that is extinct today?
Describe how hunter-gatherers developed technological advances (example – stone tools, the use of art to express ideas) • Early modern humans used stone, bone, and wood to fashion more than 100 different tools. • Tool kits included knives to kill and butcher game, and fish hooks and harpoons to catch fish. • A chisel-like cutter was designed to make other tools. Cro-Magnons used bone needles to sew clothing made of animal hides.
Necklaces of seashells, lion teeth, and bear claws adorned both men and women. People ground mammoth tusks into polished beads. • They also carved small realistic sculptures of animals that inhabited their world. • Stone Age peoples on all continents created cave paintings. The best-known of these are the paintings on the walls and ceilings of European caves, mainly in France and Spain. • Early artists drew lifelike images of wild animals
In the famous cave of Les Trois-Frères, in Ariège, France, there is a rock painting, dated between 15,000 and 13,000 years ago, of a part-human, part-bison figure, variously described by scholars as a sorcerer, a magician, or a shaman, who appears to be performing music among wild animals.