Equity as a Protected Value in Security Selection Procedures
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Equity as a Protected Value in Security Selection Procedures. 14-15 February 2014 Edwards Bayesian Research Conference Richard John Kenneth Nguyen Heather Rosoff University of Southern California CREATE. Traditional Security.

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Equity as a Protected Value in Security Selection Procedures

14-15 February 2014Edwards Bayesian Research ConferenceRichard JohnKenneth NguyenHeather RosoffUniversity of Southern CaliforniaCREATE


Traditional security
Traditional Security

  • Traditional wisdom is that security measures ought to be omnipresent.

  • At an airport, for example, this would entail monitoring all entrances, inbound traffic, and persons.

  • Limited resources realistically preclude this possibility.

  • As a result, adversaries can observe security arrangements over time, and exploit any predictable vulnerabilities to their advantage.


Different targeted security screening strategies
Different Targeted Security Screening Strategies

  • One way to countervail this exploitation is with the use of targeted security screening procedures.

  • More rigorous screening procedures creates more intrusions for passengers(e.g. thorough searches of persons and their belongings, screening fees).

  • Passengers are going to have different perceptions of flight risks, and for this reason, different preferences relative to sacrificing equity concerns to protect against these risks.

  • Viscusi and Zeckhauser (2003) conducted a study evaluating individual willingness to sacrifice civil liberties at airports to reduce terrorism risk.



Viscusi and zeckhauser 2003
Viscusi and Zeckhauser, 2003

  • Survey examined civil liberties issues pertaining to the targeting of passengers for screening at airports based on demographic characteristics

  • Potential policy concern:

    • Screening based on ethnicity and race creates concerns and costs for certain populations

    • Actual cost of inspection may be costless, but not to the individual being inspected

  • Support for profiling increases if there is a substantial reduction in avoided delays to other passenger

  • Survey results demonstrate that targeted screening of airline passengers raises conflicting concerns of efficiency and equity


Research questions
Research Questions

  • What values, if any, are subjects willing to tradeoff for increased security at the airport?

  • Do subjects show more sensitivity to the protection of civil liberties compared to other values?

  • Are any values “protected values”?

  • How do subjects’ tradeoffs vary relative to different screening selection procedures?


Study design
Study Design

  • Five Values (Equity, Safety (miss rate), Hassle (false alarm rate), wait time and screening cost)

  • Ten tradeoff assessments conducted per subject

  • Inequity manipulation involving airport security screening selection policies (Profiling vs. Behavioral Indicators vs. Random selection)

  • Trade-offs based on a series of binary choices to determine indifference between alternatives between airlines (Pacific or Coastal) varying only in security procedures employed


Security attributes
Security Attributes

  • Equity: screening selection policy

    Current one-stage screening

    Vs

    Alternative two-stage screening (profile-based, behavior-based, randomization)

  • Miss rate: proportion of people not detected during security and board a plane with contraband

  • False alarm rate: proportion of people without contraband who are falsely identified as having contraband during security screening

  • Time: average waiting time for security screening

  • Money: cost of screening fee per flight/each time a passenger undergoes screening





Equity versus Cost and Wait TimeTradeoff


Equity versus Miss-Rate and False-Alarm Tradeoff









Distribution of cost us equivalent to reduction in miss rate and false alarm rate from 1 9 to 1 99
Distribution of Cost ($ US) Equivalent to Reduction in Miss Rate and False Alarm Rate from 1:9 to 1:99


Distribution of Wait Time (Minutes) Equivalent to Reduction in Miss Rate and False Alarm Rate from 1:9 to 1:99



Median trade off equivalents
Median Trade-off Equivalents Time from 60 to 15 min.


Equity as a Protected Value in Security Selection Procedures Time from 60 to 15 min.

14-15 February 2014Edwards Bayesian Research ConferenceRichard JohnKenneth NguyenHeather RosoffUniversity of Southern CaliforniaCREATE


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