Austroads Guide to Road Tunnels Development and overview of content L J Louis FIEAust CPEng RPEQ
Content of presentation • Introduction • Austroads and ARRB • Process of development • Consultation • Overall content • Current status of the Guide • Future
Introduction • Background • Austroads – who are they? • Les Louis • Intent of presentation • Reason for the Guide • Stakeholders • Explain the consultation undertaken • Discuss the content and rationale • Explain the status of the document and its applicability • Provide information on providing feedback
Austroads • Membership: • Six state and two territory road authorities • C’Wealth Dept of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Development • Australian Local Government Association • New Zealand Transport Agency
Austroads • Role of Austroads: • Expert advice to Government • Facilitating collaboration between road agencies • Promoting harmonisation, consistency and uniformity in road and related operations • Undertaking strategic research • Promoting improved and consistent practice by road agencies
ARRB • Formerly the Australian Road Research Board • Created by Austroads members at the time (current shareholders) • Government owned, independently run, not-for-profit research organisation • Undertakes technical and strategic research for Austroads and its members • Engaged by Austroads to produce this Guide
Need for Guide • Major expenditure by Austroads members on tunnels • Lack of an agreed national technical standard • Provide a source of information based on current knowledge
Need for Guide - Issues • Uncertain structural design standards • Questionable geometric safety standards • Poor attention to detail (e.g. leaks) • High maintenance requirements • High variability in safety standards and systems (e.g. spacing of escape doors) • Variable environmental requirements • Incorrect volumetric land acquisition
Purpose of the Guide • Provide high level guidance to those making decisions in the planning, design, operation and maintenance of new road tunnels in Australia & NZ. • To be used by- • Engineers and technical specialists in tunnel technology working on the planning, design and operation of road tunnels • Proponents of road tunnel solutions • Senior decision makers (in an overview role) • Regulators • Users of this Guide will be able to determine standards for road tunnel design and operation acceptable to Austroads members.
Process of Development • Tunnel Technology Review Panel • Drawn from Austroads members – all States, ARRB, C’wealth, NZ, LG represented • Literature Review – Australia, NZ, PIARC, UK, Norway, Japan, USA • Learnings from previous projects • Significant input from: • Australasian Tunnelling Society (ATS) • Australian Tunnel Operators Group • Consultation with industry specialists – Fire and Rescue, Consultants • Specialist input including some writing
Process of Development • Drafts written • Reviewed by Panel • Comments from Austroads Members • Comments from ATS, ATOG, AFAC, CNI • Revised Drafts and further review • Review by Arnold Dix (Consultant and member of PIARC Committees on tunnels) • Further drafts and review • Final versions approved
Consultation • Input from a wide cross section of industry – • ATS • ATOG • AFAC • City North Infrastructure (CNI) - Brisbane • Robert Bertuzzi • Arnold Dix
Overall Structure of the Guide • The Guide is in three parts: • Part 1: Introduction to Road Tunnels • Part 2: Planning, Design and Commissioning • Part 3: Operation and Maintenance
Part 1: Introduction to Road Tunnels - Scope • Provides overview of requirements . . Details in the other two parts • Gives guidance on the planning process to ensure that all of the necessary factors affecting the design, construction, maintenance and operation of the tunnel are considered • Covers those matters that have a significant impact on the strategic planning of a tunnel solution . . .
Part 1: Scope (cont.) • Emphasis placed on risk analysis and management • Introduces process to establish the Fire Safety requirements • Discusses the effects of different construction methods, operational factors and maintenance needs that affect the details of the tunnel dimensions, equipment and facilities required.
Part 1: Contents • Introduction • Road Tunnel Implementation Process • General Planning Requirements • Regulatory Requirements • Traffic Considerations • Structural Design Considerations • Geometric Design Considerations . . .
Part 1 – Contents (cont.) • Geotechnical Considerations • Drainage, Water and Flood Protection • Functional Safety and Operations • Environmental Considerations • Construction Methods Commentary 1 - Types of tunnel construction
Part 2: Planning, Design and Commissioning - Scope • Sets out Austroads expectations for appropriate design • Discusses expected approach to the design of the elements of the tunnel project . . and defines/refers to acceptable standards • This document is intended to establish the benchmark for tunnel planning and design in Australia and New Zealand
Part 2 - Scope • This Part does not deal with the refurbishment of existing tunnels nor the retro-fitting of components to existing tunnels • Describes the commissioning phase Tunnels are evolving and therefore this is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of road tunnels.
Part 2: Contents • Introduction • General Design Requirements • Structural Design • Geometric Design • Pavement Design • Environmental Considerations • Drainage design • Fire safety • Ventilation design • Lighting design • Electrical Supply design . . .
Part 2: Contents (cont.) • Design for Monitoring and Control 12.1 Operations Management & Control Systems (OMCS) 12.2 Tunnel Control Centre 12.3 Communications System 12.4 Plant Management and Control • Services Buildings and Plant Rooms 13.1 General 13.2 Design and Layout 13.3 Heating, Air-conditioning and Ventilation 13.4 Floor Loading 13.5 Lightning Protection 13.6 Building Security and Fire Protection • Construction Issues • Tunnel Commissioning Appendix A Horizontal Curves & Sight Distance.
Part 2 – some issues • Design life of components • Concrete – sprayed, unreinforced, fibre reinforcing • Design fire • Transport of combustible liquids • Dispersion of vitiated air from portals • External air quality • Commissioning requirements
Part 2 – some issues (continued) • Level of sophistication required for control systems and electrical requirements for regional tunnels and low traffic tunnels • How many “bells and whistles”? • Live loading above the tunnel on the surface
3-lane road tunnel with permanent rockbolt and shotcrete support under construction Courtesy: Dr Douglas Maconochie
Part 3: Operation and Maintenance - Scope • Sets out operational requirements of the systems described in detail in Parts 1 and 2 • Describes the protocols required for interaction and coordination of the various authorities who are stakeholders in the operation of the tunnel • Sets the performance standards for the operation and maintenance of the facility as well as providing guidelines for operation of the various systems including the manuals and operating procedures required.
Part 3: Contents • Introduction • General operation& Maintenance requirements • Operations 3.1 Objectives 3.2 Methodology 3.3 Traffic Management 3.4 Incident Management 3.5 Operational Performance • Maintenance • Human Factors • Training • Environment
Current Status • Part 1 – published July 2010
Current Status • Part 2 - Published November 2010
Current Status • Part 3 - Published August 2010
Current Status • Now the adopted guide for all State road authorities • Individual authorities may produce supplementary guidelines • Qld: Road Planning and Design Manual, Volume 3 – Guide to Road Tunnels
Qld Guide to Road Tunnels • Will adopt Austroads Guide with supplementary requirements e.g. • Ramps (e.g. cross section) • Cross section – e.g. shoulder widths • Specific structural requirements (e.g. lining reinforcement) • Specific requirements for bus ways • To be developed this year
Future • Proposed Workshops (ARRB) – 2012 • One day seminar format • Proposed for Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne • Austroads welcomes feedback • Corrections • Additions • New information • Send to firstname.lastname@example.org
Summary • The intention of Austroads is that this publication will provide for uniformity of practice in Australia and New Zealand • The guidance provided in this edition is general in many areas . . Due to rate of change of technology • Not a text book on tunnels . . Unlike • Norwegian guide • FHWA 2010 • But does take position on some issues . . .
Summary • It is not intended to provide any form of substitute for the special expertise that is needed to prepare effective and efficient working designs for a road tunnel