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Switzerland. By Ryan Siegel. Early Development. Bonaparte helped bring around birth of Switzerland in early 1800s Act of Mediation, helped set up federalism After fall of Napoleon, Swiss were asked to draft their own Constitution. Switzerland recognized as a nation on March 20, 1815

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switzerland

Switzerland

By Ryan Siegel

early development
Early Development
  • Bonaparte helped bring around birth of Switzerland in early 1800s
  • Act of Mediation, helped set up federalism
  • After fall of Napoleon, Swiss were asked to draft their own Constitution.
  • Switzerland recognized as a nation on March 20, 1815
  • The Cantons were to essentially be strong sovereign states
civil war
Civil War
  • From 1830-1833, 10 cantons underwent significant change towards a more democratic system of government.
  • In 1834 tensions mounted between Liberal Cantons and Catholic Cantons
  • The Catholic Cantons broke off into what would be dubbed the Sonderbund
  • In 1847, when the Sonderbund refused to dissolve, Civil war broke out
new constitution
New Constitution
  • After the civil war it became obvious to the Swiss that a stronger central government needed to be created in order to keep peace and neutrality
  • 1848 entailed the creation of a new Constitution (minor adjustments were made in 1874 which lead to the right of referendum, in 1891 right of initiative, and in 1999 to basically update the constitution)
  • Helped Unite Switzerland
  • Dispelled some economic problems
neutrality
Neutrality
  • Swiss neutrality has contributed to improvements in the well-being of the nation
  • Use of Swiss soldiers as mercenaries outlawed
  • It is illegal for Swiss soldiers to enlist with a foreign nation
  • Swiss still modernize army however
  • Neutrality has led to organizations such as the Red Cross to be stationed in Geneva
  • Geneva convention held in Switzerland
  • By the 1970s over 150 international organizations were located in Switzerland
government structure
Government Structure
  • Federal Republic
  • 23 Cantons
  • Executive Branch, Legislative branch, Judicial Branch
  • Highly democratic
executive branch
Executive Branch
  • 7 members
  • Act as one person
  • Elected by Legislature
  • 1 member elected president

André Bugnon

legislative branch
Legislative Branch
  • Called the Federal Assembly
  • Composed of two houses
    • Council of States
    • National Council
political parties
Political Parties
  • Many political parties, but four mostly control political power
    • Christian Democrat People’s Party, Radical Democrats, Social Democrat, and Swiss People’s Party
  • Similar to United States two party representation
  • Power distributed through the parties by the parties
cantonal and local government
Cantonal and Local Government
  • 20 cantons, 6 “half” cantons
  • Landsgemeinde
  • Open-air meetings
powers of central government
Powers of Central Government
  • Matters of war, peace, treaties, army regulations
  • Allocation of resources
  • Public works
  • Public communications
  • Swiss National Bank
  • Printing of Money
  • Regulating weights and measures
  • Hold a monopoly over the sale of gunpowder and alcohol
powers of cantons
Powers of Cantons
  • Control over education
  • Health
  • Sanitation
  • Control police force
  • Direct courts lower than federal court
municipalities
Municipalities
  • 2,740 in Switzerland
  • Deal in services assigned by Cantons
  • The mayor and the town meetings that occur form the main body of local government
judicial branch
Judicial Branch
  • Although called Judicial Branch power is limited when compared to U.S. Judicial Branch
  • Federal Court is highest court, stationed in Lausanne
  • No Judicial Review, instead referendums are used
  • Serves more as court of appeals and other special trials
referendums and initiatives
Referendums and Initiatives
  • Referendums allow people to put into question laws passed by legislature
  • Initiatives gives people right to vote on issues set forth by the people
women s suffrage
Women’s Suffrage
  • Women’s rights were slow moving in Switzerland as exemplified by the lack of women’s suffrage
  • by 1960s and early 1970s progress started to be made
  • 1990 all women could vote in any elections
similarities to u s
Similarities to U.S.
  • Elected body of officials
  • Two house legislature
  • Executive Branch
  • Spread of Power
  • Democratic
  • Powers of national legislature
differences
Differences
  • Open-air meetings
  • Weaker Judicial Branch
  • Multiple members compose Executive branch
  • Referendums and Initiatives
  • Different Branches do no exercise checks and balances as extensively as United States
bibliography
Bibliography
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/28/Ingres%2C_Napoleon_on_his_Imperial_throne.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/Sonderbund.png
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/37/Curia_Confoederationis_Heleticae_-_Swiss_parliament_and_government.jpg
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:BlankMap-Switzerland.png
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Schweizer_Gemeinden.gif
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Bundesverwaltungsgericht_Bern.jpg
  • http://www.electionguide.org/images/flags/switzerland.gif
  • http://importance.corante.com/archives/Flag_of_the_United_States.png