Unit 2: Foundations of Government- The Thirteen Colonies:Describe how geographic diversity influenced economic, social, and political life in colonial North America
Essential Question: • Why did the early colonists come to America? • How did the colonies shape the people and institutions of the colonies?
The Thirteen Colonies • Three Geographic Regions • New England Colonies • Middle Colonies • Southern Colonies • Proprietary Colony: owner or proprietor owned the land and controlled the land-appointed by King of England • A Charter- written document granting land and authority to set up colonial governments. • Royal Colony: owned and ruled by the King directly.
A: New England Colonies: Massachusetts,Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire • 1. Massachusetts. • Pilgrims left England for the New World on the Mayflower • Landed on Plymouth Rock in 1620 • Mayflower Compact: First act of direct democracy in the New World. • Small colonies, rocky shores, deep port in Boston, shipping, fishing, and eventually whaling. • 2. Connecticut: Assembly wrote the first written constitution in the colonies-Called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut.
B: The Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. • 1. New York • Originally a Dutch colony (New Amsterdam) • 1664-became an English colony-name change 2. Pennsylvania: William Penn received this land from Charles II (King of England) • Penn was a Quaker=believed in peace and equality ( against war and slavery) • Offered freedom of religion to other colonists.
Middle Colonies • 4: New Jersey: In 1702, NJ became a royalcolony= ruled and owned directly by the King of England. • What is the difference between a proprietary colony and a royal colony?
C: Southern Colonies-Yeah!!!!!: North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and Georgia • 1. Virginia: • Jamestown-founded in 1607, first English permanent settlement in the North America. Was a joint-stock company (partial ownership by investors and the Crown)- First elected Assembly in the New World-House of Burgesses. 2. Maryland: (1634) Founded as a haven for Catholics 3. Carolina: 1653 Lost Colony (What happened) Proprietary Colony under Sir Walter Raleigh. Loses charter. • Becomes two royal colonies in 1729. New Bern is capital of North Carolina. 4. Georgia: James Oglethorpe founded colony for English debtors and poor people could make a fresh start. Hold off the Spanish
North and South Carolina • Became separate colonies in 1729. • New Bern is capital of NC • Charles Towne is capital of SC • The Piedmont of both colonies was settled by Scots-Irish who travelled down the GreatWagon Road from Pennsylvania down into the backcountry. • Scots-Irish: hearty, independent minded, Presbyterian, distrustful of the British.
II: People of the Colonies • A: Religious Dissenters: those who followed another faith other than the Anglican church i.e. Puritans, Presbyterians, Quakers. • The colonists who founded Massachusetts were called Puritans because they wanted to reform or purify the Anglican Church. • The Puritans considered themselves Pilgrims (people on a religious journey). Royal governors of Massachusetts did not believe in the religious tolerance of other religions.
B: Religious freedom: • Quakers founded Pennsylvania • A proprietor founded Maryland for Catholics-Maryland Toleration Act • Roger Williams received a charter to found Rhode Island, which became the first place in America to welcome people of all faiths • North Carolina had several religious groups settle i.e German/Swiss Lutherans, Scots-Irish Presbyterians,Quakers.
III: The Economies of the 13 Colonies • A: New England Colonies • 2. Fishing • 1. Shipbuilding B: The Middle Colonies- The Bread Basket 1. Farming- wheat, other staple crops for food C: Southern Colonies 1. Cash crops (grown for sale) a. tobacco b. rice c. indigo
IV: The Beginning of Slavery • 1. Plantation system: large scale agriculture. • 2. More work than indentured servants could do. • 3. Triangular Trade: the pattern of trade that developed among the Americas, Africa, and Europe. • 4. The Middle Passage: Voyage from Africa to the Americas.
Map Activity • Refer to the map on pages 40 and 42 and color the three different colonial regions. Use the map on p. 45 and record some of the products unique to the 3 regions. • To the side of your map record the Key Events. • Read pp. 42-43, What is an indentured servant? Explain Triangular Trade. You can do this on the back of your map or at the bottom.
Ticket Out • 1. On what crops did the economy of the Southern Colonies depend? • 2. Describe the three parts of Triangular Trade. • 3. What was the significance of the Mayflower Compact?
The French and Indian War1754-1763 War between the French and Indians on one side. The British and Colonists on the other. The Iroquois Nation fought with the British. The war was also known as the Seven Years’ War. France, Sweden and Austria allied together to fight the King of Prussia. Britain and France fought for control over India. In the Americas, the French lost the war- Britain gained west of the Appalachian Mountains, and Canada. End result--- Britain is in DEBT.
The Albany Plan of 1754:Proposed by Ben Franklin: Colonies should unite to have a stronger voice against the Crown. Failed because the colonies did not feel a sense of urgency or desire to stand up to Britain.
Results from the War • Britain is in debt. • Tensions are growing between colonists and Native Americans as people want to move west. • Proclamation Line of 1763: Prevented colonists from settling west of the Line. Ran down the Appalachian Mountains. • People defied, ignored the law. Daniel Boone and others moved west into the Cumberland Gap and settled in Tennessee and Kentucky.