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Literature. Kathryn, Claire, Grace and Devon. William Shakespeare 1564-1616 . 38 plays 154 sonnets. Christian Holy Trinity Church. The Globe Theatre. The Plague . In 1593, the plague was terrorizing the city of London. Reflected in his work: The Rape of Lucrece in 1594

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Kathryn, Claire, Grace and Devon

the plague
The Plague
  • In 1593, the plague was terrorizing the city of London.
  • Reflected in his work:

The Rape of Lucrece in 1594

Romeo and Juliet in 1594-1595

elizabethan era
Elizabethan Era
  • He reflected England’s patriotic enthusiasm
  • Richard II: “This happy breed of men, this little world, This precious stone set in the silver sea, Which serves it in the office of a wall Or as a moat defensive to a house Against the envy of less happier lands…”
john milton
John Milton
  • December 9th, 1608- November 8th, 1674
  • The most educated poet of England
his life at the university of cambridge
His Life at the University of Cambridge
  • He was very intelligent, but argumentative
  • Radical beliefs
  • His long hair led his peers to call him the “Lady of Christ”
radical to new official
Radical to New Official
  • During the Stuarts’ reign he was thought of as a radical, but this changed when England became a commonwealth.
  • When Cromwell came into power in the 1640s, Milton became a new official in his office.
his losses reflected his writings
His Losses reflected his Writings
  • He had lost his father, a good friend, and many of his children and wives
  • In 1652, he lost his sight
  • When the commonwealth died within England, he was forced to go into hiding for writing propaganda
his radical beliefs in writing
His Radical Beliefs in Writing
  • Paradise Lost
  • A Treatise of Civil Power and Ready and Easy Way To Establish a Free Commonwealth
  • Divorce Tracts
jonathan swift 1667 1745
Jonathan Swift 1667-1745
  • Born in Dublin, Ireland on November 30th, 1667
  • Died on October 19th 1745
  • Church of Ireland
  • Political pamphleteer, satirist and


  • A Journal to Stella
  • Drapier’s Letters
  • The Battle of the Books
  • An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity
  • Gulliver’s Travels
  • A Tale of a Tub
  • A Modest Proposal

His signature

drapier s letters
Drapier’s Letters
  • Drapier’s Letters were seven pamphlets
  • Written to turn the public against privately created copper coins.
  • William Wood
  • Condemned by Irish government
a modest proposal
A Modest Proposal
  • “A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland From Being a Burden on Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Public”
  • Published anonymously
  • A satirical essay
gulliver s travels
Gulliver’s Travels
  • Told from the perception of Lemuel Gulliver
  • Originally published as “Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World”
  • Swift’s most famous piece
  • Religious turmoil
  • English and Irish government problems.
  • “I attempted to rise, but was not able to stir: for as I happened to lie on my back, I found my arms and legs were strongly fastened on each side to the ground; and my hair, which was long and thick, tied down I the same manner. I likewise felt several slender ligatures across my body, from my armpits to my thighs. I could only look upwards, the sun began to grow hot, and the light offended mine eyes. I heard a confused noise about me, but in the posture I lay, could see nothing except the sky." (Swift)
excerpt analysis
Excerpt Analysis
  • Shows the restrictions of the British government
  • Helplessness of people
  • People felt as if they could not truly see what was going on
the time period s impact on swift
The Time Period’s Impact on Swift
  • Created/Fuelled Swift’s motives for writing
  • The whole reason for Swift writing at all.
swift s impact on his time period
Swift’s Impact on His Time Period
  • Some took his work as a joke, although many were able to see through their comical exteriors
  • People took his political messages to life
  • Saw government in a new light
  • Drapier’s Letters succeeded in turning the public agains William Wood, which soon turned into a national boycott.
miguel de cervantes 1547 1616
Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616)
  • Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright
  • Considered by many to be the Shakespeare of Spanish literature
  • Lived during the Spanish Golden Age
  • His influence on the Spanish language has been so great it is often called “la lengua de Cervantes”
  • “The Prince of Wits” (El Príncipe de los Ingenios )
  • Wrote books of critiquing chivalry
cervantes life
Cervantes’ Life
  • Cervantes was wounded at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 and lost use of his arm
    • Battle of Lepanto: Holy League v. Ottoman Empire
      • Winner: Holy League (Catholic maritime states)
      • Spain was part of the Holy League at this time
  • 1575 he was captured by the Turks and carried to slavery in Algiers
  • He returned to Spain in 1580 after many attempts to escape, after paying a ransom
  • He goes to prison many times…never found guilty of his crimes
  • Excommunicated for seizing grain belonging to the cathedral authorities of Seville in 1587 over-zealously carrying out his responsibilities, which were to gather provisions for the Spanish Armada)
historical background
Historical Background
  • Spain had been at its height of European domination during his time
    • Also suffered some of its worst defeats
      • Many of these are retold in Don Quxiote

Later in Cervantes’ life:

  • Spanish bankruptcy- Philip II went bankrupt in 1596 from excessive expenditures on war and his successor, Philip III, did the same in 1607 by spending a fortune on his court
  • Armed forces were out of date
  • Government was inefficient
  • Problems between classes that led to a series of internal revolts
don quixote
Don Quixote
  • Published in 1605
  • Considered the first modern novel
  • Serves as a prototype for the comic novel
  • A classic of Western literature
  • Satire on chivalrous works
  • About an old man with old armor, etc. who believed he was a young knight travelling with his squire, fighting crime
  • Caused a demand for more that led to a plagiarist prints in 1614--causing Cervantes to complete the real second volume by the end of 1615
  • No work (except for the Bible) has been translated more
terms don quixote coined
Terms Don Quixote coined
  • "the proof of the pudding is in the eating" (por la muestra se conoce el paño)
    • “the proof is in the pudding”"
  • “who walks much and reads much, knows much and sees much”(quienanda mucho y lee mucho, sabe mucho y ve mucho).
  • “In short, our gentleman became so caught up in reading that he spent his nights reading from dusk till dawn and his days reading from sunrise to sunset, and so with too little sleep and too much reading his brains dried up, causing him to lose his mind. His fantasy filled with everything he had read in his books, enchantments as well as combats, battles, challenges, wounds, courtings, loves, torments, and other impossible foolishness, and he became so convinced in his imagination of the truth of all the countless grandiloquent and false inventions he read that for him no history in the world was truer.”

“Those you see there," answered his master, "with the long arms, and some have them nearly two leagues long.“

"Look, your worship,'' said Sancho. "What we see there are not giants but windmills, and what seem to be their arms are the vanes that turned by the wind make the millstone go.“

"It is easy to see," replied Don Quixote, "that you are not used to this business of adventures. Those are giants, and if you are afraid, away with you out of here and betake yourself to prayer, while I engage them in fierce and unequal combat."

i don quixote
I, Don Quixote

A musical take on Don Quixote

other works
Other Works
  • NovelasEjemplares ("Moral or Instructive Tales"). They are unequal in merit as well as in character.
    • Variety of styles: anecdotes, romances in miniature, serious, comic
    • All, however, are written in a light, smooth, conversational style
  •  “Los Tratos de Argel” (The Traffic of Algiers) 
  • “La Galatea”
moli re 1622 1673
Moliére (1622-1673)
  • Actual name is Jean-BaptistePoquelin (Moliére is his stage name)
  • French playwright and actor
  • Great master of comedy in Western literature
  • Considered to be the creator of modern French comedy
  • Wrote highly controversial works
  • Considered France’s ‘answer’ to Shakespeare

Aristocrats (such as Philippe I, Duke of Orleans—the brother of Louis XIV) paid for Molière to perform before the King at the Louvre

  • Molière was thereafter the official author of court entertainments
  • He was admired by the court and other Parisians
  • Molière's satires attracted criticisms from moralists and the Roman Catholic Church.
  • TrartuffeouL’Imposteur(Tartuffe or the Hypocrite) and its attack on religious hypocrisy received condemnations from the Church, while Dom Juan was banned from performance.
historical background1
Historical Background
  • Versailles built
  • Fronde
    • Which led the French people to believe the best hope for stability was in the crown
  • Dutch/French war
  • French-Spanish Wars
  • Wealthy French family
  • Lived with a peasant family for the first 3 years
  • All house help could only speak Latin or German to him
  • Elected of Mayor of Bordeaux during the plague
  • Kept balance between Catholics and Protestants (Moderate)
  • * Education should be learned through concrete measures such as experience
time affecting his writing
Time Affecting his Writing
  • Religious turmoil
    • Disgusted by it
    • moderate
    • Can never be certain of anything
    • “What do I know?”
time affecting his writing1
Time Affecting his Writing
  • Plague
    • Don’t be so emotionally attached to things
    • No point in pursuing lasting fame
    • Be ready for death when it comes
of drunkeness
Of Drunkeness

Now, among the rest, drunkenness seems to me to be a gross and brutish vice. The soul has greater part in the rest, and there are some vices that have something, if a man may so say, of generous in them; there are vices wherein there is a mixture of knowledge, diligence, valor, prudence, dexterity and address; this one is totally corporeal and earthly. And the rudest nation this day in Europe is that alone where it is in fashion. Other vices discompose the understanding: this totally overthrows it and renders the body stupid.

  • I quote others only to better express myself.
  • I do not care so much what I am to others as I care what I am to myself.
  • Even on the highest throne in the world, we are still sitting on our ass.
  • Our eyes are bigger than our stomachs
famous today
Famous Today
  • Father of skepticism
    • Wrote short essays
    • Rather blunt
  • Quoted for the influence in Black Swan
  • Jackson J Spielvogel’s Western Civilization Textbook