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Chemical and physical hazards in food - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chemical and physical hazards in food. FS0401 1. 2000. Perception of chemical hazards in food. FS0401 2. 2000. Where chemical hazards arise in the food supply. Vehicle. emission. Crops. Processing. Agricultural. practices. Livestock Retail. Cooking. Landfills. Storage.

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Chemical and physical hazards in food


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    1. Chemicalandphysical hazardsinfood FS0401 1 2000

    2. Perceptionofchemical hazardsinfood FS0401 2 2000

    3. Wherechemicalhazards ariseinthefoodsupply Vehicle emission Crops Processing Agricultural practices Livestock Retail Cooking Landfills Storage Seafood Industrial emissions and effluents Distribution FS0401 3 2000

    4. Chemical hazards in food - industrial and environmental contaminants - biologically derived contaminants - contaminants produced during processing - improperly used agrochemicals - improperly used additives FS0401 4 2000

    5. Contaminants of industrial and environmental origin Chemical Associated food Main source Fish, animal fat Fish, animal fat Fish Transformers By-product Chlor - alkali PCBs Dioxins Mercury Lead Canned food, acidic foods, drinking water Vehicle emission, smelting, paint, glazes, solder Grains, molluscs Fish, mushrooms Sludge, smelting Accidental release Fertilizers Cadmium Radionuclides Vegetables, drinking water Nitrate / nitrite FS0401 5 2000

    6. Inherentplantfoodtoxicants Chemical Associated Food oxalates rhubarb, tea, cocoa, spinach, beet glycoalkaloids green potato cyanoglycosides lima bean, cassava phytohaemagglutinin red kidney beans and other beans various carcinogens spices and herbs FS0401 6 2000

    7. Mycotoxins Chemical Source Associated Food Aflatoxins Aspergillus flavus and corn, peanuts, tree nuts, milk A. parasiticus Trichothecenes Mainly Fusarium cereals and other foods Ochratoxin A Penicillium verrucosum wheat, barley, corn A. ochraceus Ergot alkaloids Fumonisins Claviceps purpurea Fusarium moniliforme rye, barley, wheat corn apples, pears cereals, oil, starch Patulin P. expansum Zearalenone Fusarium spp FS0401 7 2000

    8. Temperature range for growth of toxigenic moulds Aspergillus Penicillium Minimum Optimum Maximum FS0401 8 2000

    9. Minimum water activity for growth of toxigenic moulds Minimum Water Activity Mould Aspergillus ochraceus 0.78 Penicillium verrucosum 0.79 Aspergillus flavus 0.80 Fusarium moniliforme 0.87 Stachybotrys atra 0.94 FS0401 9 2000

    10. Targetorgansofsomemycotoxins Mycotoxin Target Aflatoxin liver Ochratoxin A Trichothecenes Ergot alkaloids kidney mucosa peripheral vascular system Zearalenone uro-genital tract FS0401 10 2000

    11. Contaminantsofbiologicalorigin F S0401 11 1999

    12. Regulatory limits for mycotoxins in foods Mycotoxin Limit (µg/kg) Commodities No. of Countries Aflatoxins B+G 0 - 50 corn, peanuts, other foods 48 animal feeds milk, dairy 0 - 1000 21 Aflatoxin M1 Ochratoxin A 0.05 - 1.0 17 1 - 300 rice, corn, 6 barley, beans, pork kidney Deoxynivalenol Patulin 1000 - 4000 wheat 5 apple juice all foods 20 - 50 10 Zearalenone 30 - 1000 4 FS0401 12 2000

    13. Risk assessment for mycotoxin in foods Mycotoxin JECFA Benchmark Aflatoxin B1 0.01 - 3 cancers per year per 100.000 people per µg of aflatoxin B1 per kg bw/day 0.4 µg/kg bw/day Patulin 0.1 µg/kg bw/day Ochratoxin A FS0401 13 2000

    14. Regulatory limits for aflatoxins in some Asian and Pacific countries Country Limit (µ/kg) Commodity Australia/New Zealand China peanuts 15 (T) 5 (T) other foods maize, peanut all 20 (B1) 30 (B1) India Japan rice 10 (B1) other grains all 5 (B1) 35 (T) Malaysia Philippines coconuts, peanut products (export) all 20 (B1) Absence (B1)* Singapore Sri Lanka Thailand all all 30 (T) 20 (T) B1= Aflatoxin B1 *Limit of detection is around 10 mg/kg T = Total Aflatoxins FS0401 14 2000

    15. Other toxicants of biological origin Toxicant Source Associated food Ciguatera dinoflagellates tropical Fish Shellfish toxins: dinoflagellates shellfish paralytic neurotoxic diarrhoeic amnesic cereals, honey fish, cheese Pyrrolizidine alkaloids various toxic plants Histamine spoilage bacteria FS0401 15 2000

    16. Contaminants produced during processing - polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons - heterocyclic amines, nitropyrenes - nitrosamines - ethyl carbamate (urethane) - chloropropanols FS0401 16 2000

    17. Improperly used agrochemicals Insecticides organochlorine insecticides organophosphorus insecticides carbamate insecticides Animal Drugs antimicrobials growth promotants anthelminthics therapeutics fumigants fungicides herbicides fertilizers plant growth regulators rodenticides nematocides molluscicides FS0401 17 2000

    18. Foodadditives anti-caking agents release agents antimicrobial agents non-nutritive sweeteners antioxidants nutrient supplements colours nutritive sweeteners curing and pickling agents oxidising and reducing agents emulsifiers pH control agents enzymes propellants and gases firming agents sequestrants flavour enhancers solvents and vehicles flavouring agents stabilisers and thickeners humectants surface-active agents leavening agents texturizers FS0401 18 2000

    19. Other potential hazards processing Aids ion-exchange resins, filter aids enzyme preparations microorganisms solvents, lubricants, release agents specific function additives food Contact Materials utensils working surfaces equipment packaging Materials cleaning Agents metal, plastic, paper, wood, etc. detergents sanitisers FS0401 19 2000

    20. Improperlyusedadditives Adulterants - borax - boric acid - formaldehyde - water - unapproved colouring agents FS0401 20 2000

    21. Improper use of food additives Illegal use in Indonesia Pom Aceh - 2734 sauce bottles - Rhodamine B Red drinks containing Rhodamine-B : Bogor 15 % Djakarta 8 % Rankasbitung 17 % Pacet 17 % Cikampek 24 % Semarang 55% red drinks contained Rhodamine-B 31% food samples contained Rhodamine-B, Methanyl yellow or orange-RN FS0401 21 2000

    22. Riskanalysisofchemicalsinfoods Risk Characterisation Hazard Socio-economic/ Characterisation Political Assessment End-point Dose response Risk-Benefit Cost-Benefit Risk Hazard Exposure Communication Identification Assessment Options Regulatory Level in food Voluntary Dietary intake Non-intervention Risk Risk Management Assessment Monitoring and Evaluation FS0401 22 2000

    23. Monitoring points for chemical hazards - point source - environmental compartments - primary production - import / export - production and processing - wholesale outlets and markets - biomonitoring FS0401 23 2000

    24. Criteria for establishing priorities - severity of potential effects on health - levels in individual foods and the diet - size and susceptibility of the exposed population - significance in domestic and international trade - nature and cost of management options FS0401 24 2000

    25. Chemical hazards in the home - metal cookware contaminated with heavy metals - ceramic or enamelled serving dishes with toxic glazes - leaded crystal used with acid foods - copper pans and utensils - miscellaneous home-use chemicals FS0401 25 2000

    26. Chemicalhazardsinfood Disease and Death Exposure FS0401 26 2000

    27. Potentialphysicalhazards - glass - slime or scum - metal - bone - plastic - stones and rocks - capsules or crystals - pits or shell - wood - paper - human and animal hair FS0401 27 2000

    28. Potentialphysicalhazards Distribution of complaints of foreign objects in food soft drinks 19 % infant foods 16 % bakery 14 % chocolate and cocoa products 7 % fruits 7 % cereals 5 % vegetables 4 % fish 3 % others 25 % FS0401 28 2000

    29. Potentialphysicalhazards Possible control meas-res - vis-al inspection - filters or sieves - metal detectors - magnets - separation by density - personnel precautions (hair net, gloves) FS0401 29 2000

    30. Effect of thermal processing on nutrients Vitamin B Vitamin A group* Vitamin C Vitamin E Freezing - M M - Pasteurisation L L M L Boiling L M to H H L Microwaving - L L - Baking/Roasting L L to M M L Ultra High temperature L L M L (UHT) Canning M M to H H M *Comprises a number of water soluble, low molecular weight compounds and includes Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin, Folate, B 6 and B12. FS0401 30 2000

    31. Effect of food processes on nutrients Vitamin B group* Vitamin C Vitamin E M to H - - Vitamin A - Milling M L L to M H M Air drying Freeze drying Salting L M L - L L - - - - - Aw reduction by sugars Fermentation - L L - M - - L - Acid pH (i.e. <4.6) - - H Additives e.g. B1 - Thiamine (e.g. sulphite) - L - L to M Irradiation *Comprises a number of water soluble, low molecular weight compounds and includes Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin, Folate, B 6 and B12. FS0401 31 2000

    32. Minerallossduring foodprocessing Loss may be due to - Physical removal - Leaching into cooking water - Shrinkage during cooking FS0401 32 2000

    33. Factors affecting mineral availability Processes which may affect mineral availability - Reducing or removing ingredients which inhibit mineral absorption - Fermentation and germination - Heating (increases availability of some minerals, decreases availability of others - Addition of phosphates FS0401 33 2000

    34. Macronutrients - Relatively stable to food processing - Certain treatments physically remove macronutrients from the food (e.g. milling) - Heat treatments can denature proteins, or cause fats to oxidise and degrade - Certain treatments increase carbohydrate levels (e.g. adding sugar as a preservative) FS0401 34 2000

    35. Effectofnutrientlossondiet - If a food is a principal source of a particular nutrient, it is important to minimise the loss of this nutrient - Processed foods sometimes retain more nutrients than fresh foods - Strategies to minimise overall nutrient loss must look at each processing stage FS0401 35 2000

    36. Minimisingnutrientlosses To reduce nutrient loss - Reduce water in cooking - Minimise the time between harvest and eating - Ensure optimum storage FS0401 36 2000

    37. Free radicals and chronic disease Free radicals cause oxidative stress Increasing evidence that free radicals may be responsible for and related to - diabetes mellitus - cardiovascular disease - atherosclerosis - tropical diseases FS0401 37 2000

    38. Counteracting oxidative stress Oxidative stress is counteracted by -antioxidative enzymes - non-enzymic antioxidants (e.g. vitamins A, C, E and beta carotene) FS0401 38 2000