Social Studies Gateway Review Packet. Content Related material. 15 Possible Topics for the Social Studies Gateway Exam. Ancient Civilization Greece Rome Byzantine Empire The Mongols The Middle Ages The Renaissance The Age of Exploration & Discovery The Reformation English History
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Content Related material
The Middle Ages
The Age of Exploration & Discovery
Enlightenment & Revolution
Age of Imperialism
World War I
1. Mesopotamia: Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
2. Egypt: Nile River
3. India: Indus and Ganges Rivers
4. China: Yellow and Yangtze Rivers
The Birthplace of Democracy
Polytheistic include. . .
Gods took human form and emotions; were immortal
Myths taught to understand mysteries of nature/lifeGreek Religion
Athens include. . .
Life based on education and culture
Women had few rights
Dual monarchy / military oligarchy
Life based around military
Women enjoyed more rightsContrasting two major city states: Athens and Sparta
Classical culture flourished. include. . .
Pericles, a hero from the Persian Wars, became leader of Athens.
Increased wealth and power of Athens
Beautified AthensGolden Age of Greece
Family include. . .
Role of fathers was important
Role of women was less important
Patricians - upper class, wealthy landowners
Plebeians - lower class, farmers, artisans and merchantsSocial Organization
Magistrate include. . .-consuls
Democracy-Election of Senators
Dictatorship-crisis timesRome had a balanced government*form of democracy called a republic*written law code: the Twelve Tables
- Ruled as Emperor Augustus for 41 years
- Created a strong government
- Many problems after his death
Nomadic, Fierce Warriors, and Expert Horsemen
4 regions or khanates
Invasion of Barbarian tribes caused end of Roman Empire
Changed way of life in Europe
Disruption of trade
Downfall of cities
Decline in learning
Feudalism = political system include. . .
Based on loyalty and the exchange of land for services
Hierarchy of power
Fief = landThe Rise of Feudalism
Bubonic plague: carried to Europe by fleas via trading ships
2/3 of European population diedThe plague hit Europe in 1496
Rebirth of classical culture and learning
Writers and the printing press helped include. . .
spread the Renaissance spirit
to the rest of Europe.
God, Gold and Glory!
Renaissance thirst for knowledge
Portuguese explorers include. . .
Prince Henry the Navigator*
Parts of AfricaPortuguese Exploration
Spanish Explorers include. . .
South America (except for Brazil)
Southwestern United States
English explorers include. . .
Sir Walter Raleigh
New EnglandEnglish Exploration
French explorers include. . .
Marquette and Joliet
Parts of Northern AmericaFrench Exploration
Dutch explorers include. . .
New YorkDutch Exploration
Changes in the Catholic church
Conflicts in the Catholic Church
Abuses in the Church
Worldliness of Renaissance popes
Poorly educated lower clergy—some illiterate
Lower clergy having semi-official wives
Selling of indulgences (pardons for sin)
Reasons for Reform:
Luther is angered over the sale of indulgences. include. . .
In anger he writes the 95 Theses:
Salvation by faith alone
The Bible is the only authority for Christian life not the church
The priesthood of all believers; meaning that all people can communicate with God as the priests doMartin Luther
Beliefs: include. . .
Everyone is sinful, but God can save you
Predestination - God knows when you are born whether you will be saved or not-- those who are saved are called “The Elect”
Wanted a theocracy - government ruled by the Church
Followers are known as CalvinistsJohn Calvin-- Switzerland
Knox put Calvin’s ideas into practice. His followers overthrew their Catholic Queen (Mary Stuart) and set up a working theocracy.
Followers were known as PresbyteriansJohn Knox-- Scotland
Henry broke from the church when the Pope refused to give him a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine could not produce a male heir and Henry wanted to remarry.
Henry created the Church of England and named himself head of the new church.Henry VIII
Founded the Society of Jesus him a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine could not produce a male heir and Henry wanted to remarry.
Members were known as Jesuits.
The society was run like an army.
Their mission was to win Protestants back to the Catholic Church.St. Ignatius of Loyola
The Tudors him a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine could not produce a male heir and Henry wanted to remarry.
Henry VIII (P)
Edward VI (P)
Mary I “Bloody Mary” (C)
Elizabeth I (P)
Mary “Queen of Scots” (C)
James I (C)
Charles I (C)
<Oliver Cromwell> (P)
<Richard Cromwell> (P)
Charles II (C/P)
James II (C)
William III and Mary II (P)The Royalties
** C = CATHOLIC ** P = PROTESTANT **<>= NON ROYAL
Faces many problems him a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine could not produce a male heir and Henry wanted to remarry.
Religious conflicts (Protestant vs. Catholic)
A rival queen (Mary Stuart)
Competition from Spain (Philip II)
Issues with Parliament
Known as the most powerful English monarchElizabeth I: The “Virgin Queen”
Elizabeth’s cousin (Mary Stuart) challenged the throne him a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine could not produce a male heir and Henry wanted to remarry.
Because Elizabeth had no heirs, Mary was her successor
Mary and Philip II of Spain planned to overthrow her
The plot failed and Elizabeth ordered Mary’s executionStopping the Rival Queen
Cromwell declared himself “Lord Protector”. him a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine could not produce a male heir and Henry wanted to remarry.
He sent Parliament home and created a republic.
The republic was really a dictatorship.
People lost many freedoms.
When Cromwell died his son took over. This gave England a chance to bring back the monarchy.Oliver Cromwell: “Lord Protector”
Tired of Puritan rule, England “restores” the monarchy by inviting Charles (son of Charles I) to be King Charles II
Charles II (the “Merry Monarch”) did not rule by divine right
Allowed “habeas corpus”
Charles II died and left no heir
Catholic brother, James succeeded as King James II
Ruled under belief of divine right
Forced to abdicateThe Restoration
a king of queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of history
A Time of Change
Most of the revolutions occurred between 1775 and 1826. by inviting Charles (son of Charles I) to be King Charles II
(1799 – 1815) = Napoleon’s rule
The 13 colonies paid taxes to England but had no representation in Parliament
Colonists were angry
Wrote the Declaration of Independence
Broke ties with Great Britain
George Washington led the American troops to victory!The American Revolution1775-1781
French people were angry over high taxes, unfair class systems (3 estates), and poor standard of living
Influenced by ideas of Enlightenment and American independence, the French people revolt!The French Revolution1789-1799
Napoleon Bonaparte, a national hero, leads the new government and appoints himself Emperor of France.
Napoleon wants to conquer the world.
Becomes very powerful and makes his brother king of Spain.
After a series of wars with Europe, Napoleon is defeated and exiled.Napoleon’s new government1799-1815
Factors aiding industrial growth
Changes in farming
Rise in population
Effective banking system
Socialism: government and appoints himself Emperor of France.
Wealth of country to be shared equally
Share ownership of certain properties such as factories and the railroad
Wealth and power to be shared by all
In reality, state controls everythingNew political systems evolve
Imperialism: the act of extending one’s rule over others government and appoints himself Emperor of France.
European countries needed raw materials to supply their industries.
Prestige was associated with owning many or large territories.
Missionaries wanted to spread Christianity.
New markets were needed for European products.The Age of Imperialism
The following countries all had colonies in Africa
during the 1900’s.
By the 1900s only two countries remained free from colonial rule; the rest of Africa had been carved into colonial territories.
Britain found in India what it did not in Africa. government and appoints himself Emperor of France.
A supplier of raw material for European factories
A large market for British goods
A large workforce for factories built in India
The British East India Company set up trading posts in India in the 1600’s.
India became a sphere of influence under the British East India Company.
Even though the company was under the control of the British Crown, the company was free to govern India as it saw fit. It even had its own army.
The British Crown did not intervene until it had to suppress an uprising called the Sepoy Rebellion.Imperialism in South Asia
China was a self-sufficient country which meant it did not need to trade with other countries. It had little interest in European goods.
English merchants smuggled opium into China and created a demand.
The Opium War was fought to try to end the British control of the substance but China was defeated.
The Treaty of Nanking was signed which allowed Britain to establish spheres on influence in China.Imperialism in China