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Being Prepared: Disaster and Crisis Planning

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Sarah Daignault Executive Director, NBOA Mohonk Conference May 3, 2007. Being Prepared: Disaster and Crisis Planning. Why are you here today?. Pandemic Info. Why Plan?. Disasters and Crises are a part of human history

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sarah daignault executive director nboa mohonk conference may 3 2007
Sarah Daignault

Executive Director, NBOA

Mohonk Conference

May 3, 2007

Being Prepared: Disaster and Crisis Planning
slide3
Why Plan?
  • Disasters and Crises are a part of human history
  • Planning will allow for better response, even though you can’t plan for every contingency
  • Planning can be adapted to fit other disaster scenarios
  • Once a disaster hits, there is no time to plan
how many plans
How Many Plans?
  • By type of Disaster
    • Fire
    • Flood
    • Pestilence
  • By type of Response
    • Evacuation of Buildings
    • Lockdown
    • Evacuation of Campus
assess the risks for your school
Assess the risks for your school

High

High

Low

Severity

Low

Likelihood

slide6
NBOA Disaster Planning Experience
  • Institute for Advanced Financial Management held in October 2006
  • 25 business officers and 9 experts worked through a pandemic flu scenario
  • Created outline of a disaster plan for independent schools
slide7
NBOA Disaster Planning
  • Breakout Groups Focused on:
    • Business Operations and Governance
    • Employee Issues
    • Facilities
    • Students and Education
slide8
Business Operations and Governance
  • Risk Management/Crisis Management Team
  • Enrollment Contracts
    • Review now, with your culture in mind
    • Keep it flexible
  • Cash Flow & Institutional Relationships
    • How much cash required for critical needs, and how much do you have at lowest point?
    • Are bank and payroll provider prepared?
slide9
Business Operations and Governance
  • Outside Service Providers
    • Have they made adequate plans?
    • Look for backups and cooperative options.
  • Technology & Redundant Communications
    • Arrange for backup or remote web-hosting.
    • Arrange for remote access to your system and to bank and payroll providers.
  • Automated Communications to Families
slide10
Business Operations and Governance
  • Business Continuity
    • Identify essential functions
    • Cross-train staff
    • List of passwords, important websites, etc.
  • Plan for Shutting Down Facility
    • Disposal of perishable goods
    • Maintenance issues - how to keep pipes from freezing, etc.
slide11
Employee Issues
  • Employment Contracts
    • At will language
    • Don’t define school year - make it flexible
  • Leave Policies
    • Standard policy that allows flexibility
    • Return to work guidelines
    • Work from home guidelines
slide12
Employee Issues
  • Ability to Continue Salaries and Benefits
    • Work with faculty to determine best course of action
    • Coordination of benefits, COBRA, etc.
  • Emotional/Psychological Toll
    • People will lose loved ones
    • Acknowledge losses in keeping with your school’s culture
slide13
Facilities
  • Evacuation Plans (particularly for boarding)
    • How will you get students home?
    • If they can’t go home, where will they stay?
  • Proper Hygiene
    • Constant hand washing
    • Sneeze and cough etiquette
    • Stay home if you’re sick!!!
slide14
Facilities
  • Stockpiling
    • Need1000 calories and 2 gallons of water, per person per day
  • Community Use of Facilities
    • Check with local emergency management officials - might be planning to use your school
    • Work with them - what are their priorities and what might your school offer?
slide15
Facilities
  • Physical Security
    • Hope for the best, expect the worst
    • To what extent are you willing to protect your assets?
  • Isolation, Quarantine, Morgue
    • Separate those who may be sick and those who are, and plan for a place to hold the dead
  • If you evacuate, plan for the animals.
slide16
Students and Education
  • Continuing education during closure
    • Assess ability to offer e-learning
    • Faculty to create 3 weeks’ worth of lessons
  • Effect of long-term closure (college placement, lost credits, etc.)
  • Communications plan to parents
  • Deep emergency contact list
vocabulary lesson
Vocabulary Lesson
  • Pandemic
  • Mutation
  • Reassortment
  • H5N1
  • U and W shaped mortality curves
  • Social Distancing
slide18
What is a Pandemic?
  • An epidemic (outbreak of infectious disease) that spreads across a wide geographic region or the world
  • According to the WHO, a pandemic exists when:
    • there is the emergence of a disease new to the population
    • the agent infects humans, causing serious illness
    • the agent spreads easily and sustainably among humans
slide19
Recent Epidemics
  • AIDS
  • Ebola
  • SARS
  • Monkey pox
  • Bird flu
slide20
Seasonal vs. Pandemic Flu
  • Seasonal influenza
    • Peaks December thru March in U.S.
    • 36,000 deaths/200,000 hospitalizations
    • Frail, elderly and very young – U shaped distribution
  • Pandemic influenza
    • No seasonal preference
    • Comes in waves, lasting a year or more
    • Millions of deaths
slide21
Pandemic Flu History
  • Ten recorded over past 300 years
    • 10-49 years between events, with an average of 24 years between events
    • No predictable pattern
  • Three in the 20th century
    • 1918-20 – mutation event with markers similar to those found in birds
    • 1957-58 – reassortment event
    • 1967-68 – reassortment event
slide22
Mortality Rates
  • 1918 Spanish Flu
    • 20-40 million deaths worldwide
    • 675,000 deaths in U.S.
  • 1957 Asian Flu
    • 1-4 million deaths worldwide
    • 70,000 deaths in U.S.
  • 1968 Hong Kong Flu
    • 1-4 million deaths worldwide
    • 34,000 deaths in U.S.
slide23
Why the Concern About H5N1?
  • Highly lethal virus that has resisted eradication efforts (culling of birds)
  • Crossed species, infecting 49 animal species beyond birds, including humans
  • Limited human-to-human transmission has occurred
  • Human infections result in rapid deterioration and high mortality rates (50%, most of those healthy young adults)
slide24
Similarities to 1918 Pandemic
  • High mortality rate
    • Appears to have W shaped mortality curve
  • Has the same protein tag
    • NS1 protein found in H1N1 (1918 Spanish flu) and H5N1 only ones alike out of 169 viruses
    • May explain the events leading to respiratory failure and death
slide27
WHO Pandemic Stages
  • Phase 1 - Influenza virus subtype may be present in animals, risk of human infection low
  • Phase 2 - Influenza virus subtype may be present in animals, risk of human infection substantial
  • Phase 3 - Cases of human infection reported, no human-to-human transmission
  • Phase 4 - Small clusters of limited human-to human transmission
  • Phase 5 - Larger clusters of human infection
  • Phase 6 - Increased and sustained human infection
slide28
Public Health Challenges
  • Short incubation period (2-17 days)
  • Virus can survive on surfaces for several days
  • People may be infectious days before symptoms are evident
  • Droplet infection (sneezing/coughing)
slide29
Likely Government Actions
  • Isolation of the sick
  • Quarantine of the exposed
  • Protective sequestration
    • Isolating a community before illness enters
  • Social Distancing
    • Actions taken to discourage close social contact between individuals
slide30
Social Distancing
  • No group gatherings (classes, worship services, athletic events, concerts)
  • Risky to use public transportation - people may defer travel or it may be cancelled
  • People can work alone in spaces, drive in their own cars
slide31
Social Distancing
  • Maintain working distances of 4-6 feet
  • Do not share equipment (computers, telephones)
  • Meet by phone or video conferencing, avoid face-to-face meetings
slide32
Residences

Workplace/Classroom Social Density

Offices

Hospitals

7.8 feet

Elementary Schools

16.2 feet

11.7 feet

3.9 feet

http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/docs/7.4.4.xls

slide33
School Closures
  • Perceived risk will influence behavior
    • Will teachers and students show up?
    • What level of absenteeism will force closure?
  • Pulling the trigger early may help delay outbreak and diminish the overall number of cases
  • Issues with calling it early
      • Social disruption
      • Child care issues
      • Workforce issues
slide34
Resources
  • Personal
  • http://www.fema.gov/plan/prepare/plan.shtm
  • http://www.pandemicflu.gov/plan/individual/index.html
  • http://www.ncdp.mailman.columbia.edu/program_citizen.htm
  • Institutional
  • http://www.fema.gov/institution/university.shtm
  • http://www.pandemicflu.gov/plan/school/index.html
  • http://www.ncdp.mailman.columbia.edu/program_school.htm
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