La recherche L’industrie et les problématiques de l’environnement Institute of High Pressure Physics L’usine metalurgique „Huta Warszawa” vu par l’Ecole Polytechnique de Varsovie La sud de la Pologne en Pologne Jan Pluta Faculté de Physique
Perspectives énergétiques de la Pologne
La Premiere Cooperation Franco- Polonaise
Pologne France France et Pologne (comparaison)
Perspectives énergétiques de la Pologne
Current status: Production of electric energy (2005) approx.150 TWh. It is sufficient for the needs of country. Conclusion: No needs to build new electric power plants. but
comparison Poland:150 TWh. France:580 TWh It corresponds for Poland: 580TWh *0.6= 348 TWh More than two times more !!! • What is the reason for this difference? • Smaller needs of industry. • Using of coal and/orother fuels – where the electricity can be used.
Contribution of different sources of energy in the world production of electricity. Contribution of different sources of energy in the production of electricity in Poland (95% - coal) Charbon 95 % !!! http://www.biomasa.org/edukacja/odnawialnezrodlaenergii
Why we need new electric power stations? • Development of industry and social infrastructure • Decreasing of: CO2, SO2, NOX emission • Diversification of the sources of energy
What new source of energy is suitable for Poland? • Coal –NO(emission of CO2, SO2, NOX +diversification) • Oil or gas, – NO (dependence on Russia ?) • Renewablesources of energy: • Water – already used • Wind – OK. but insufficient • Geothermal sources – too low source temperature • Sun –OK. but insufficient • Biomass – unrealisticand unreasonable • Nuclear – OK. but....................
I prefer rather this, (les cigognes) ...and I am sure that the birds are of the same opinion. I do not like such view. ... and what about the windmills?
Today there are more than 400 nuclear power reactors in operation in 31 countries around the world. Generating electricity for nearly 1 billion people, they account for approximately almost 17 percent of worldwide electricity generation and provide half or more of the electricity in a number of industrialized countries.
Nuclear – OK. but.................... • Czarnobyl – Society say – „No more!” • Coal resources sufficient for 30 – 50 years • Future of the coal mining industry (mines and miners) ??? (social problem) • No experts in Poland (The construction of first nuclear power plant in Poland was stopped after the Czarnobyl disaster.)
Coal or Nuclear energy – Competition. Unacceptable! Is it possible to change competition cooperation (?) „That is the question”
Up to now the nuclear plants were only used for the production of electric energy. ... but maybe there are some other possibilities?
High-temperature nuclear plants of 4-th generation • can be the solution of the problem, as: • electric energy production, • Coal gas or liquid fuel • natural source exist in Poland (coal) • Social problem resolved (miners) • Independence on the source of liquid/gas fuels (Russia) • High (9000C) temperature useful for many technological processes, e.g. production of Hydrogen.
Some numbers on Hydrogen production and application • The world production of Hydrogen in 2004 is more than 50 millions ton. • 95% of Hydrogen is produced from the natural gas • 50% is used for the production of fertilizer artificial • 40% is used by the oil refinery • 97% is produced close to the location of its application • 10% - year increase of world production of Hydrogen http://web.mit.edu/pebble-bed
Hydrogen in Poland today:Nitrogen processing 2 miliards m3 of natural gas used for the production of Hydrogen and ammonia: CH4 + 2H2O CO2 +4H2 N2 + 3H2 2NH3 High temperature reactor could diminish the year using of natural gas up to some hundreds of millions m3.
Hydrogen in Poland today:oil refinery System for Hydrogen production at the Płock refinery is using up to 100 thousands m3/h what is making possible to produce 80 thousands tons of Hydrogen per year. This hydrogen is then used for the processes like hydrokraking to produce light hydrocarbons from the heavy fraction of oil. High temperature reactor used in the oil refinery could increase the year production of commercial liquid fuels up to some hundreds of ton (and/or decrease the using of oil)
High temperature reactor in small and efficient power plant • Thanks to high temperature, T = 900 oC, the efficiency of the change of heat to electricity is about 45% • In the case of coal plant this efficiency is less than 40%, and for currently working nuclear plants is about 35% • The possibility of construction of small, efficient end ecological coal plant is unrealistic Small, efficient nuclear power plant will make competition for gas power plant – not for a large coal plant.
Heat of the reactor for the coal processing and production of gas and liquid fuel The first stage of synthetic petrol production is carbon processinfg for gas: C + H2O CO + H2 In the next stages the CO2 is removed from the synthetic gas and the synthesis of hydrogen with carbon oxide is making: 17H2 + 8CO C8H18 + 8H2O This technology is well known but is expensive and strenuous for the environment. Some tons of coal should be used to change on ton for the synthetic petrol. The heat from the high temperature reactor will make possible to change even some hundreds of tons of coal for liquid fuel and this process will be friendly for the environment.
Hydrogen the fuel of the future Hydrogen is seen as a fuel of the futurebut will become it only when some condition arefulfilled: • Efficient, cheep and clean technologies of Hydrogen production • Systems of hydrogen storage • Fuel cells, making efficiently electricity from Hydrogen and Oxygen
High temperature reactor in the industrial centre Hydrogen Technological heat T = 900 oC Reactor Electricity
Fuel element design Graphite layer (5mm) Coated particles imbedded in Graphite Matrix Fuel sphere (Φ = 6 cm) Some layers of different materials for safety Half-section Coated particle (Φ ≈ 1mm) Fuel (uranium dioxide) (Φ = 0,5 mm) Fuel elements of high temperature reactor http://www.pbmr.com
Construction of high temperature reactor http://web.mit.edu/pebble-bed/index.html
Reaktor wysokotemperaturowy http://web.mit.edu/pebble-bed/index.html
And what with the radioactive waste? Reactor use some tens of tons of fuel par year. • Storage of radiactive waste will be near the reactor duriong approx. 50 years of reactor operation and 50 years after the end of work. • The storage place do not need a forced cooling • From the very begin the fuel is in almost nondestructive microcapsules • The recycling of fuel is not predicted.
Conclusion: The high temperature 4-th generation nuclear reactor is a good solution for Poland.
...and what about the future generations?
Tokamak ITER In Cadarache (FRANCE) "тороидальная камера в магнитных катушках"
Welcome to Warsaw University of Technology History since 1826 Students: 30 000 Academic staff: 2500 other staff: 2000 17 faculties the main building of WUT
Warsaw University of Technology “Gaudeamus igitur...” Celebration of the new Academic Year
Warsaw University of Technology Celebration of the new Academic Year
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Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology • Divisions: • Complex systems • Optics • Semiconductors • Solid State Ionics • Condensed Matter Structure • Solid State Technology • Nuclear Physics • Nonlinear Optics
Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology Some important events at the Faculty Ceremony of Marie Curie fellowships awards ... led by prof. Gerard ‘t Hooft.
Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology Some important events at the Faculty Meeting of Polish Physicists September 2005
Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology Some important events at the Faculty Festival of science 2005 „Physics under the sails and wings”
Before - scientific cooperation since 1991: experiments: E183, E193, E286 at GANIL, and NA44 at CERN Cooperation agreement signed 24 March 1997 by director of EMN Mr. Germinet and rector of WUT Mr. Woźnicki during the visit of EMN delegation in Warsaw After - Rapid development of cooperation in research and education