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NON-CONFORMITIES AND EXEMPTIONS AERONAUTICAL STUDIES. Overview. INTRODUCTION TYPES OF NON-CONFORMITIES WHAT TO DO? THE ICAO REQUIREMENTS AERONAUTICAL STUDY TECHNICAL ANALYSIS CAA ACTIONS LIMITATIONS. INTRODUCTION. Aerodrome certification Basic principles

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overview
Overview
  • INTRODUCTION
  • TYPES OF NON-CONFORMITIES
  • WHAT TO DO?
  • THE ICAO REQUIREMENTS
  • AERONAUTICAL STUDY
  • TECHNICAL ANALYSIS
  • CAA ACTIONS
  • LIMITATIONS

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

introduction
INTRODUCTION

Aerodrome certification

Basic principles

Non-conformities likely in practice

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

types of non conformities 1
TYPES OF NON-CONFORMITIES (1)
  • Related to operational regulations
    • Lack of procedures
    • Insufficient maintenance programs
    • Competency issues

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

types of non conformities 2
TYPES OF NON-CONFORMITIES (2)
  • Related to design regulations

- Terrain or objects penetrating the obstacle limitation surfaces

  • Insufficient strip and RESA (Dimensions and/or quality)
  • Insufficient runway/taxiway separation
  • Lack of, or wrongly designed visual aids

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

what to do 1
WHAT TO DO? (1)
  • Ignore them?
  • Correct them.
  • Accept them on specified conditions.

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

what to do 2
WHAT TO DO? (2)
  • IGNORE ?
  • NO WAY!

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

what to do 3
WHAT TO DO? (3)
  • CORRECT ?
  • THE PREFERRED OPTION!
  • REASONABLE TIME-FRAME

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

what to do 4
WHAT TO DO? (4)
  • ACCEPT ON SPECIFIED CONDITIONS
  • WHY??

If correction is:

- Either physically impossible, or

- Economically impossible.

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

the icao requirements 1
THE ICAO REQUIREMENTS (1)
  • 3E.1.1    The CAA may exempt, in writing, an aerodrome operator from complying with specific provisions of these regulations.
  • 3E.1.2    Before the CAA decides to exempt the aerodrome operator, the CAA must take into account all safety-related aspects.

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

the icao requirements 2
THE ICAO REQUIREMENTS (2)
  • 3E.1.3    An exemption is subject to the aerodrome operator complying with the conditions and procedures specified by the CAA in the aerodrome certificate as being necessary in the interest of safety

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

aeronautical study 1
AERONAUTICAL STUDY (1)

Doc 9774 Appendix 3:

DEFINITION

An aeronautical study is a study of an aeronautical problem to identify possible solutions and select a solution that is acceptable without degrading safety.

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

aeronautical study 2
AERONAUTICAL STUDY (2)

Doc 9774 Appendix 3:

PURPOSE

An aeronautical study is conducted to assess the impact of deviations from the aerodrome standards specified in Volume I to Annex 14 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, and the national regulations, to present alternative means of ensuring the safety of aircraft operations, to estimate the effectiveness of each alternative and to recommend procedures to compensate for the deviation.

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

technical analysis 1
TECHNICAL ANALYSIS (1)

Doc 9774 Appendix 3:

Technical analysis will provide justification for a deviation on the grounds that an equivalent level of safety can be attained by other means. It is generally applicable in situations where the cost of correcting a problem that violates a standard is excessive but where the unsafe effects of the problem can be overcome by some procedural means which offer both practical and reasonable solutions.

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

technical analysis 2
TECHNICAL ANALYSIS (2)

In conducting a technical analysis, inspectors will draw upon their practical experience and specialized knowledge. They may also consult other specialists in relevant areas. When considering alternative procedures in the deviation approval process, it is essential to bear in mind the safety objective of the aerodrome certification regulations and the applicable standards so that the intent of the regulations is not circumvented.

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

tech analysis risk analysis
TECH ANALYSIS – RISK ANALYSIS
  • A description of problems and objectives
  • Selection of procedures, methods and data sources
  • Identification of undesired events
  • An analysis of causal factors and consequences
  • A description of risk
  • Mitigating measures
  • Presentation of results

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

problems and objectives
Problems and objectives
  • The problem can be to find out the safety implications of not complying (in full) with a certain regulation or regulations
  • The objective should include an assessment of how certain mitigating measures influence these safety implications

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

procedures methods and data sources
Procedures, methods and data sources
  • Quantitative or
  • Qualitative
  • Existence, relevance and quality may determine
  • Experts opinion necessary anyhow

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

identification of undesired events
Identification of undesired events
  • Total loss of aircraft with lives
  • Major damage to aircraft and/or personnel
  • Minor damage to aircraft and/or personnel
  • Attributable to the non-conformity

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

analysis of causal factors and consequences 1
Analysis of causal factors and consequences (1)
  • What can go wrong, where and why?
  • How likely is it that it goes wrong?

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

what can go wrong where and why
What can go wrong, where and why?
  • Collision with terrain, aircraft, vehicle, object?
  • Aircraft landing pre-threshold, overrunning or veering off the runway?
  • During flight
  • On ground
  • Lack of guidance (lights, markings, signs)
  • Confusing guidance
  • Insufficient protected area

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

how likely is it that it goes wrong
How likely is it that it goes wrong?
  • The probability issue
  • Quantitative or Qualitative
  • Data sources
  • Expert opinion

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

the potential consequences if it goes wrong
The (potential) consequences if it goes wrong?
  • Catastrophic?
  • Hazardous?
  • Major?
  • Minor?

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

a description of risk
A description of risk
  • A list can now be made of:
    • Consequences and probability for each undesired event attributable to a non-conformity
    • In other words a list of risks

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

mitigating measures 1
Mitigating measures (1)

Aim:

-    Reduce the probability of an undesired event happening

-    Reduce the consequences of an undesired event

Look to the intent of the regulation which is not (fully) complied with.

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

mitigating measures 2
Mitigating measures (2)
  • Publication in the AIP
  • Procedures
  • Operational restrictions
  • Safety and Usability is a balancing act!
  • Feedback to the risk calculations

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

presentation of results 1
Presentation of results (1)
  • Documented, possible to see what has been done
  • Essential assumptions, presuppositions and simplifications
  • Uncertainty about the results due to the choice of and availability of methods, procedures and data sources

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

presentation of results 2
Presentation of results (2)
  • Which undesired events contribute the most to risk, and factors influencing these undesired events
  • Recommendations for measures to mitigate risk (and their estimated effect)

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

caa actions 1
CAA ACTIONS (1)

Based on the application made by the aerodrome for an exemption and supported by the result of the aeronautical study, the CAA may grant an exemption and specify on which conditions the exemption is given

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

caa actions 2
CAA ACTIONS (2)

Such conditions, mitigating measures, time limitations etc, shall be approved by the CAA and stated in the aerodrome certificate, ref Doc 9774

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

caa actions 3
CAA ACTIONS (3)

3E.1.3    An exemption is subject to the aerodrome operator complying with the conditions and procedures specified by the CAA in the aerodrome certificate as being necessary in the interest of safety

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

limitations
LIMITATIONS

Doc 9774 :

3E.1.4    When an aerodrome does not meet the requirement of a standard or practice specified in regulation 3A.3, the CAA may determine, after carrying out aeronautical studies, only if and where permitted by the standards and practices, the conditions and procedures that are necessary to ensure a level of safety equivalent to that established by the relevant standard or practice.

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

review
REVIEW
  • Non-conformities are likely
  • Non-conformities must be handled
  • Non-correctables are most difficult
  • An aeronautical study may be of help
  • Mitigating measures must be defined
  • Beware of limitations

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002

slide34
QUESTIONS?

Aerodrome Safety Workshop - Almaty, Kazakhstan - 18 to 22 November2002