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Second Phase of the Cold War. -Western Renaissance Ends - Economic Turmoil -Political and Social Harmony in the West Evaporates Soviet Union Seemed Stable, but…. Part I. Political Turning Points. Fall of Khrushchev Brezhnev and Stalinism Returned to the Soviet Union 1968 Prague Spring

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Second Phase of the Cold War

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Second Phase of the Cold War

-Western Renaissance Ends - Economic Turmoil -Political and Social Harmony in the West EvaporatesSoviet Union Seemed Stable, but…

part i political turning points
Part I. Political Turning Points
  • Fall of Khrushchev
    • Brezhnev and Stalinism Returned to the Soviet Union
  • 1968
    • Prague Spring
    • Brezhnev Doctrine
    • Tet Offensive
  • Watergate
fall of khrushchev
Fall of Khrushchev
  • His criticism of Stalin threatens all those in the Soviet Government who got their because they supported Stalin
  • Khrushchev’s foreign policy failures weaken him
    • Cuban Missile Crisis
prague spring
Prague Spring
  • Soviets crushed a popular reform movement in Czechoslavakia
    • Dubcek and “Socialism with a face”
      • Attempted to win reform without a direct confrontation with Soviets
    • Failed Brezhnev Doctrine
  • Turning Point- Demonstrated that Eastern Europe Would Not Get Freedom
  • Uprisings in Hungary also put down violently
the vietnam war simple version
The Vietnam War- Simple Version
  • U.S. Tries to Prevent A Communist Takeover in South Vietnam
    • Shows that Even the American Economy is Mortal
    • brings down a U.S. President and breaks the U.S. confidence in its foreign policy
    • Becomes a flashpoint in generational struggle, particularly in 1968
  • Turning Point- Even the U.S. has its limits
the vietnam war more complicated
The Vietnam War- more complicated
  • U.S. Tried to Prevent A Communist Takeover in South Vietnam
    • Lyndon Johnson- “I will not be the president who let Southeast Asia go the way of ________”.
      • Domino Theory
    • Korea (1950-1953)
    • Tet Offensive (1968)
      • U.S. “We’re About to win”
      • Umm… nope
      • Johnson refused to run for a second term
    • Vietnam War also highlights Generational divide in America
      • Silent Generation (‘50s)
        • America is great- beat the Nazis, stand against Communism… supoort it!
      • Counterculture/Beat/Hippie (’60s)
        • American ain’t perfect- Civil Rights Movement
        • Vietnam War is American Imperialism
      • Vietnam War was the first ‘television war’
    • In the end, the U.S. backed out and ceded Vietnam to Communism
    • Turning Point- Even the U.S. has its limits
part ii economic turning points
Part II. Economic Turning Points
  • Move off of the Gold Standard
    • I’m not covering this one in this lecture
  • No More Cheap Energy
energy crises
Energy Crises
  • U.S. economic system, which has been the foundation of the world economy since WWII, faltered
  • Energy Prices Soared
    • OPEC
      • Egypt and Syria attacked Israel
        • Yom Kippur War
    • Iranian Revolution
part iii d tente the 1970s
Part III. Détente – the 1970s
  • A cooling of Cold War Tensions
  • Led by West German Chancellor Willy Brandt
  • Helnsinki Conference
    • Signed by all European nations
    • reinforced existing European borders and placed a premium on human rights in Europe
iv d tente fell apart 1980s
IV. Détente Fell Apart- 1980s
  • Many in the West felt that the Soviets were taking advantage of détente to improve their positions in the 3rd World
    • Remind anyone of the Catholic and Protestant Leagues?
  • War in Afghanistan was another trouble spot
    • Soviets invaded
    • Was aggressive and threatened Middle East
    • U.S. supplies Afghanis with weapons
      • Irony?
  • U.S. President and Jimmy Carter and especially Ronald Reagan sped up the arms race once again
    • ‘Star Wars Program’ -- Space lasers
    • Evil empire
v the common european market
V. The Common (European) Market
  • Survived Tough Economic Times
  • Renamed European Economic Community (EEC)
  • ‘Welfare State’ in the 70s kept things from getting too bad for the poor
  • However, the welfare states did build up big deficits, and so in the 80s and 90s, there was a swing towards conservative economics… smaller government, less spending
    • Margaret Thatcher in England
    • Reagan in the U.S.
      • Reagan had trouble cutting spending because of his massive arms build up
    • Move away from ’60s counter-culture
vi the end of the cold war
VI. The End of the Cold War

Boo, hoo. I miss it soooo much. Oh, boo, hoo, hoo…

unrest in the soviet union
Unrest in the Soviet Union
  • In the 70s and 80s, the Soviet Union seemed brutally repressive, but stable. It surprised Western experts when it crashed in the late ‘80s. (I was in High School!)
  • Gorbachev, who took over after Brezhnev, was the leader at the time and largely responsible for the collapse of the Soviet Union
Gorbachev- Key points:
  • Gorbachev (1985)
  • Tries to ‘reform Communism to save it’
    • Perestroika
      • ‘Economic Restructuring’
      • A move towards Western style free market
      • Like Khrushchev… doesn’t want to abandon Communism, but cat in the bag issue…
      • Not very successful economically
    • Glasnost
      • ‘Openness’
      • Very successful
      • Demonstrated in Chernobyl disaster
      • Don’t forget cat in the bag issue

Revolutions of 1989

  • In the end, the Soviet system collapsed…
  • Eastern Europe (not the Soviet Republics, yet…) rejected Communism and Gorbachev refused to use the Soviet military to stop them
    • Poland
      • Large struggle against Soviet domination
      • Solidarity Movement
        • Labor Union
        • Didn’t try to immediately overthrow the gov’t… moderation
  • Many of these countries made a rapid transition from communism to capitalism…
    • Privatized business
    • Released price controls
    • Ended censorship
  • Most went through a turbulent transition, but then had economic recoveries
  • Germany was reunified in 1990
The Soviet Union itself fell apart in 1991 as the former Republics had mostly peaceful nationalist revolutions
  • The Soviets had much more trouble going to a market economy…
    • basically an elite grabbed all of the property being privatized and a gigantic class gap formed
    • Large criminal element in Soviet society/business



u s triumphant lone superpower
U.S. Triumphant- Lone Superpower
  • EEC  EU (European Union) survives… mainly bonded economically
  • Germany reunites and becomes a major European power again
    • Never will develop nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons
    • Fall of the Berlin Wall
vii continuing problems
VII. Continuing Problems
  • Nationalist Tensions in the Balkans
    • NATO sent in troops and fairly effectively quieted ethnic tensions (1992)
  • Russia desires role as superpower but isn’t in European Union and doesn’t westernize well
  • Nuclear threat
    • Leftover nuclear materials
    • Rogue states
    • Libya, North Korea, Iran, Iraq
  • Immigration into Europe
  • Clash of Christian and Islamic Cultures
    • Al Qaeda
  • Middle East = New Powderkeg