Which of the following is a characteristic of chemical bonds?. Shorter bonds are generally stronger than longer bonds. Covalent bonds often fall apart at physiological temperatures. The number of van der Waals bonds an atom can form is limited by the valence of that atom.
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Hydrogen bond donor atoms are usually nitrogen or oxygen.
Like van der Waals bonds, hydrogen bondsare non-directional.
The biologically most important hydrogenbonds involve hydrogen atoms covalentlybonded to oxygen or nitrogen atoms.
Hydrogen bonds are weaker than van der Waals bonds.
Weak bonds generally have energies between 1-7 kcal/mol.
Weak bonds do not require complementary molecular surfaces to be maximallyeffective.
Weak bonds attach enzymes to substrates.
Weak bonds mediate most protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions.
Water molecules are unable to form hydrogen bonds with each other.
Water molecules have a strong tendencyto exclude polar groups.
A frozen water molecule hydrogen bondedto three nearest neighbors represents themost favorable arrangement of molecules.
Organic molecules that form hydrogenbonds tend to be soluble in water.
Low activation energies are barriers that prevent spontaneous rearrangements of covalent bonds incellular systems.
A molecule linked together by weak covalent bonds hasa larger amount of free energy than a molecule linked together by strong covalent bonds.
A chemical reaction in which molecules are transformed into other molecules with less free energy generally proceeds slowly at physiological temperatures in the absence of a catalyst.
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energies needed to break old covalent bonds during molecular rearrangements.
Coupled chemical reactions are required to activate various biological “precursor” molecules. (Activated precursors store free energy that can be used later in biosynthetic reactions such as DNA or protein synthesis.) Which of the following terms describes this class of coupled chemical reactions?
release of a triphosphate group from a deoxynucleoside triphosphate molecule
release of a single phosphate group from a deoxynucleoside triphosphate molecule
release and subsequent splitting of two phosphate groups from a deoxynucleoside triphosphate molecule
release of a single phosphate group from a deoxynucleoside diphosphate molecule