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rti issues in math assessment jim wright www interventioncentral org

RTI: Issues in Math AssessmentJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org

data collection defining terms

Evaluation. “the process of using information collected through assessment to make decisions or reach conclusions.” (Hosp, 2008; p. 364). Example: A student can be evaluated for problems in ‘fluency with text’ by collecting information using various sources (e.g., CBM ORF, teacher interview, direct observations of the student reading across settings, etc.), comparing those results to peer norms or curriculum expectations, and making a decision about whether the student’s current performance is acceptable.

Data Collection: Defining Terms

Assessment. “the process of collecting information about the characteristics of persons or objects by measuring them. ” (Hosp, 2008; p. 364). Example: The construct ‘fluency with text’ can be assessed using various measurements, including CBM ORF, teacher interview, and direct observations of the student reading in different settings and in different material.

Measurement. “the process of applying numbers to the characteristics of objects or people in a systematic way” (Hosp, 2008; p. 364). Example: Curriculum-Based Measurement Oral Reading Fluency (CBM ORF) is one method to measure the construct ‘fluency with text’

use time resources efficiently by collecting information only on things that are alterable
Use Time & Resources Efficiently By Collecting Information Only on ‘Things That Are Alterable’

“…Time should be spent thinking about things that the intervention team can influence through instruction, consultation, related services, or adjustments to the student’s program. These are things that are alterable.…Beware of statements about cognitive processes that shift the focus from the curriculum and may even encourage questionable educational practice. They can also promote writing off a student because of the rationale that the student’s insufficient performance is due to a limited and fixed potential. “ p.359

Source: Howell, K. W., Hosp, J. L., & Kurns, S. (2008). Best practices in curriculum-based evaluation. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp.349-362). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

formal tests only one source of student assessment information
Formal Tests: Only One Source of Student Assessment Information

“Tests are often overused and misunderstood in and out of the field of school psychology. When necessary, analog [i.e., test] observations can be used to test relevant hypotheses within controlled conditions. Testing is a highly standardized form of observation. ….The only reason to administer a test is to answer well-specified questions and examine well-specified hypotheses. It is best practice to identify and make explicit the most relevant questions before assessment begins. …The process of assessment should follow these questions. The questions should not follow assessment. “ p.170

Source: Christ, T. (2008). Best practices in problem analysis. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 159-176). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

riot icel framework7
RIOT/ICEL Framework

Sources of Information

  • Review (of records)
  • Interview
  • Observation
  • Test

Focus of Assessment

  • Instruction
  • Curriculum
  • Environment
  • Learner
riot icel definition
RIOT/ICEL Definition
  • The RIOT/ICEL matrix is an assessment guide to help schools efficiently to decide what relevant information to collect on student academic performance and behavior—and also how to organize that information to identify probable reasons why the student is not experiencing academic or behavioral success.  
  • The RIOT/ICEL matrix is not itself a data collection instrument. Instead, it is an organizing framework, or heuristic, that increases schools’ confidence both in the quality of the data that they collect and the findings that emerge from the data.
riot sources of information
RIOT: Sources of Information
  • Select Multiple Sources of Information: RIOT (Review, Interview, Observation, Test). The top horizontal row of the RIOT/ICEL table includes four potential sources of student information: Review, Interview, Observation, and Test (RIOT). Schools should attempt to collect information from a range of sources to control for potential bias from any one source.
slide10

Review. This category consists of past or present records collected on the student. Obvious examples include report cards, office disciplinary referral data, state test results, and attendance records. Less obvious examples include student work samples, physical products of teacher interventions (e.g., a sticker chart used to reward positive student behaviors), and emails sent by a teacher to a parent detailing concerns about a student’s study and organizational skills.

slide11

Interview. Interviews can be conducted face-to-face, via telephone, or even through email correspondence. Interviews can also be structured (that is, using a pre-determined series of questions) or follow an open-ended format, with questions guided by information supplied by the respondent. Interview targets can include those teachers, paraprofessionals, administrators, and support staff in the school setting who have worked with or had interactions with the student in the present or past. Prospective interview candidates can also consist of parents and other relatives of the student as well as the student himself or herself.

slide12

Observation. Direct observation of the student’s academic skills, study and organizational strategies, degree of attentional focus, and general conduct can be a useful channel of information. Observations can be more structured (e.g., tallying the frequency of call-outs or calculating the percentage of on-task intervals during a class period) or less structured (e.g., observing a student and writing a running narrative of the observed events).

slide13

Test. Testing can be thought of as a structured and standardized observation of the student that is intended to test certain hypotheses about why the student might be struggling and what school supports would logically benefit the student (Christ, 2008). An example of testing may be a student being administered a math computation CBM probe or an Early Math Fluency probe.

icel factors impacting student learning
ICEL: Factors Impacting Student Learning
  • Investigate Multiple Factors Affecting Student Learning: ICEL (Instruction, Curriculum, Environment, Learner). The leftmost vertical column of the RIO/ICEL table includes four key domains of learning to be assessed: Instruction, Curriculum, Environment, and Learner (ICEL). A common mistake that schools often make is to assume that student learning problems exist primarily in the learner and to underestimate the degree to which teacher instructional strategies, curriculum demands, and environmental influences impact the learner’s academic performance. The ICEL elements ensure that a full range of relevant explanations for student problems are examined.
slide15

Instruction. The purpose of investigating the ‘instruction’ domain is to uncover any instructional practices that either help the student to learn more effectively or interfere with that student’s learning. More obvious instructional questions to investigate would be whether specific teaching strategies for activating prior knowledge better prepare the student to master new information or whether a student benefits optimally from the large-group lecture format that is often used in a classroom. A less obvious example of an instructional question would be whether a particular student learns better through teacher-delivered or self-directed, computer-administered instruction.

slide16

Curriculum. ‘Curriculum’ represents the full set of academic skills that a student is expected to have mastered in a specific academic area at a given point in time. To adequately evaluate a student’s acquisition of academic skills, of course, the educator must (1) know the school’s curriculum (and related state academic performance standards), (2) be able to inventory the specific academic skills that the student currently possesses, and then (3) identify gaps between curriculum expectations and actual student skills. (This process of uncovering student academic skill gaps is sometimes referred to as ‘instructional’ or ‘analytic’ assessment.)

slide17

Environment. The ‘environment’ includes any factors in the student’s school, community, or home surroundings that can directly enable their academic success or hinder that success. Obvious questions about environmental factors that impact learning include whether a student’s educational performance is better or worse in the presence of certain peers and whether having additional adult supervision during a study hall results in higher student work productivity. Less obvious questions about the learning environment include whether a student has a setting at home that is conducive to completing homework or whether chaotic hallway conditions are delaying that student’s transitioning between classes and therefore reducing available learning time.

slide18

Learner. While the student is at the center of any questions of instruction, curriculum, and [learning] environment, the ‘learner’ domain includes those qualities of the student that represent their unique capacities and traits. More obvious examples of questions that relate to the learner include investigating whether a student has stable and high rates of inattention across different classrooms or evaluating the efficiency of a student’s study habits and test-taking skills. A less obvious example of a question that relates to the learner is whether a student harbors a low sense of self-efficacy in mathematics that is interfering with that learner’s willingness to put appropriate effort into math courses.

slide20

The teacher collects several student math computation worksheet samples to document the child’s illegible number formation.

  • Data Source: Review
  • Focus Areas: Curriculum
slide21

The student’s parent tells the teacher that her son’s math grades dropped suddenly back in 4th grade.

  • Data Source: Interview
  • Focus: Curriculum
slide22

An observer monitors the student’s attention on an independent math work assignment—and later analyzes the work’s quality and completeness.

  • Data Sources: Observation, Review
  • Focus Areas: Curriculum, Environment, Learner
slide23

A student is given a timed math worksheet to complete. She is then given another timed worksheet & offered a reward if she improves.

  • Data Source: Review, Test
  • Focus Areas: Curriculum, Learner
slide24

Comments from several past report cards describe the student as preferring to socialize rather than work during small-group math activities.

  • Data Source: Review
  • Focus Areas: Environment
slide25

The teacher tallies the number of redirects for an off-task student during math. She designs a high-interest lesson, still tracks off-task behavior.

  • Data Source: Observation, Test
  • Focus Areas: Instruction
activity use the riot icel framework
Activity: Use the RIOT/ICEL Framework
  • Review the RIOT/ICEL matrix. Brainstorm sources of data that could be used to fill in the matrix to collect a range of information about students with math difficulties in your school.
rti literacy assessment progress monitoring
RTI Literacy: Assessment & Progress-Monitoring

The RTI model collects math assessment information on students on a schedule based on their risk profile and intervention placement.

Math assessment measures used are valid, reliable, brief, and matched to curriculum expectations for each grade.

Source: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools: Procedures to assure scientific-based practices. New York: Routledge.

rti literacy assessment progress monitoring cont
RTI Literacy: Assessment & Progress-Monitoring (Cont.)

To measure student ‘response to instruction/intervention’ effectively, the RTI Literacy model measures students’ reading performance and progress on schedules matched to each student’s risk profile and intervention Tier membership.

  • Benchmarking/Universal Screening. All children in a grade level are assessed at least 3 times per year on a common collection of literacy assessments.
  • Strategic Monitoring. Students placed in Tier 2 (supplemental) reading groups are assessed 1-2 times per month to gauge their progress with this intervention.
  • Intensive Monitoring. Students who participate in an intensive, individualized Tier 3 reading intervention are assessed at least once per week.

Source: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools: Procedures to assure scientific-based practices. New York: Routledge.

curriculum based measurement advantages as a set of tools to monitor rti academic cases
Curriculum-Based Measurement: Advantages as a Set of Tools to Monitor RTI/Academic Cases
  • Aligns with curriculum-goals and materials
  • Is reliable and valid (has ‘technical adequacy’)
  • Is criterion-referenced: sets specific performance levels for specific tasks
  • Uses standard procedures to prepare materials, administer, and score
  • Samples student performance to give objective, observable ‘low-inference’ information about student performance
  • Has decision rules to help educators to interpret student data and make appropriate instructional decisions
  • Is efficient to implement in schools (e.g., training can be done quickly; the measures are brief and feasible for classrooms, etc.)
  • Provides data that can be converted into visual displays for ease of communication

Source: Hosp, M.K., Hosp, J. L., & Howell, K. W. (2007). The ABCs of CBM. New York: Guilford.

cbm math measures selected sources
CBM Math Measures: Selected Sources
  • AimsWeb (http://www.aimsweb.com)
  • Easy CBM (http://www.easycbm.com)
  • iSteep (http://www.isteep.com)
  • EdCheckup (http://www.edcheckup.com)
  • Intervention Central (http://www.interventioncentral.org)
cbm developing a process to collect local norms jim wright www interventioncentral org

CBM: Developing a Process to Collect Local NormsJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org

rti literacy assessment progress monitoring33
RTI Literacy: Assessment & Progress-Monitoring

To measure student ‘response to instruction/intervention’ effectively, the RTI model measures students’ academic performance and progress on schedules matched to each student’s risk profile and intervention Tier membership.

  • Benchmarking/Universal Screening. All children in a grade level are assessed at least 3 times per year on a common collection of academic assessments.
  • Strategic Monitoring. Students placed in Tier 2 (supplemental) reading groups are assessed 1-2 times per month to gauge their progress with this intervention.
  • Intensive Monitoring. Students who participate in an intensive, individualized Tier 3 intervention are assessed at least once per week.

Source: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools: Procedures to assure scientific-based practices. New York: Routledge.

local norms screening all students stewart silberglit 2008
Local Norms: Screening All Students (Stewart & Silberglit, 2008)

Local norm data in basic academic skills are collected at least 3 times per year (fall, winter, spring).

  • Schools should consider using ‘curriculum-linked’ measures such as Curriculum-Based Measurement that will show generalized student growth in response to learning.
  • If possible, schools should consider avoiding ‘curriculum-locked’ measures that are tied to a single commercial instructional program.

Source: Stewart, L. H. & Silberglit, B. (2008). Best practices in developing academic local norms. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 225-242). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

local norms using a wide variety of data stewart silberglit 2008
Local Norms: Using a Wide Variety of Data (Stewart & Silberglit, 2008)

Local norms can be compiled using:

  • Fluency measures such as Curriculum-Based Measurement.
  • Existing data, such as office disciplinary referrals.
  • Computer-delivered assessments, e.g., Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) from www.nwea.org

Source: Stewart, L. H. & Silberglit, B. (2008). Best practices in developing academic local norms. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 225-242). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

applications of local norm data stewart silberglit 2008
Applications of Local Norm Data (Stewart & Silberglit, 2008)

Local norm data can be used to:

  • Evaluate and improve the current core instructional program.
  • Allocate resources to classrooms, grades, and buildings where student academic needs are greatest.
  • Guide the creation of targeted Tier 2 (supplemental intervention) groups
  • Set academic goals for improvement for students on Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions.
  • Move students across levels of intervention, based on performance relative to that of peers (local norms).

Source: Stewart, L. H. & Silberglit, B. (2008). Best practices in developing academic local norms. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 225-242). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

local norms supplement with additional academic testing as needed stewart silberglit 2008
Local Norms: Supplement With Additional Academic Testing as Needed (Stewart & Silberglit, 2008)

“At the individual student level, local norm data are just the first step toward determining why a student may be experiencing academic difficulty. Because local norms are collected on brief indicators of core academic skills, other sources of information and additional testing using the local norm measures or other tests are needed to validate the problem and determine why the student is having difficulty. … Percentage correct and rate information provide clues regarding automaticity and accuracy of skills. Error types, error patterns, and qualitative data provide clues about how a student approached the task. Patterns of strengths and weaknesses on subtests of an assessment can provide information about the concepts in which a student or group of students may need greater instructional support, provided these subtests are equated and reliable for these purposes.” p. 237

Source: Stewart, L. H. & Silberglit, B. (2008). Best practices in developing academic local norms. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 225-242). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

slide39

Formative Assessment Overview: Specific Assessment Tools to Measure Student Math SkillsJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org

school instructional time the irreplaceable resource
School Instructional Time: The Irreplaceable Resource

“In the average school system, there are 330 minutes in the instructional day, 1,650 minutes in the instructional week, and 56,700 minutes in the instructional year. Except in unusual circumstances, these are the only minutes we have to provide effective services for students. The number of years we have to apply these minutes is fixed. Therefore, each minute counts and schools cannot afford to support inefficient models of service delivery.” p. 177

Source: Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon, D. N., & Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in problem analysis. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 177-193).

effective formative evaluation the underlying logic

What is the relevant academic or behavioral outcome measure to be tracked?

  • Is the focus the core curriculum or system, subgroups of underperforming learners, or individual struggling students?
  • What method(s) should be used to measure the target academic skill or behavior?
  • What goal(s) are set for improvement?
  • How does the school check up on progress toward the goal(s)?

Effective Formative Evaluation: The Underlying Logic…

slide42

Summative data is static information that provides a fixed ‘snapshot’ of the student’s academic performance or behaviors at a particular point in time. School records are one source of data that is often summative in nature—frequently referred to as archival data. Attendance data and office disciplinary referrals are two examples of archival records, data that is routinely collected on all students. In contrast to archival data, background information is collected specifically on the target student. Examples of background information are teacher interviews and student interest surveys, each of which can shed light on a student’s academic or behavioral strengths and weaknesses. Like archival data, background information is usually summative, providing a measurement of the student at a single point in time.

slide43

Formative assessment measures are those that can be administered or collected frequently—for example, on a weekly or even daily basis. These measures provide a flow of regularly updated information (progress monitoring) about the student’s progress in the identified area(s) of academic or behavioral concern. Formative data provide a ‘moving picture’ of the student; the data unfold through time to tell the story of that student’s response to various classroom instructional and behavior management strategies. Examples of measures that provide formative data are Curriculum-Based Measurement probes in oral reading fluency and Daily Behavior Report Cards.

formal assessment defined
Formal Assessment Defined

“Formative assessment [in academics] refers to the gathering and use of information about students’ ongoing learning by both teachers and students to modify teaching and learning activities. …. Today…there are compelling research results indicating that the practice of formative assessment may be the most significant single factor in raising the academic achievement of all students—and especially that of lower-achieving students.” p. 7

Source: Harlen, W. (2003). Enhancing inquiry through formative assessment. San Francisco, CA: Exploratorium. Retrieved on September 17, 2008, from http://www.exploratorium.edu/ifi/resources/harlen_monograph.pdf

academic or behavioral targets are stated as replacement behaviors
Academic or Behavioral Targets Are Stated as ‘Replacement Behaviors’

“A problem solution is defined as one or more changes to the instruction, curriculum, or environment that function(s) to reduce or eliminate a problem.” p. 159

Source: Christ, T. (2008). Best practices in problem analysis. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 159-176).

formative assessment essential questions
Formative Assessment: Essential Questions…

1. What is the relevant academic or behavioral outcome measure to be tracked?

Problems identified for formative assessment should be:

  • Important to school stakeholders.
  • Measureable & observable.
  • Stated positively as ‘replacement behaviors’ or goal statements rather than as general negative concerns (Bastche et al., 2008).
  • Based on a minimum of inference (T. Christ, 2008).

Source: Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon, D. N., & Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in problem analysis. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 177-193).Christ, T. (2008). Best practices in problem analysis. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 159-176).

inference moving beyond the margins of the known
Inference: Moving Beyond the Margins of the ‘Known’

“An inference is a tentative conclusion without direct or conclusive support from available data. All hypotheses are, by definition, inferences. It is critical that problem analysts make distinctions between what is known and what is inferred or hypothesized….Low-level inferences should be exhausted prior to the use of high-level inferences.” p. 161

Source: Christ, T. (2008). Best practices in problem analysis. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 159-176).

examples of high vs low inference hypotheses

High-Inference Hypothesis.The student has visual processing and memory issues that prevent him or her from proficiently solving math facts. The student requires a multisensory approach such as TouchMath to master the math facts.

Unknown

Known

Unknown

Low-Inference Hypothesis.The student has acquired the basic academic skill but needs to build fluency. The student will benefit from repeated opportunities to practice the skill with performance feedback about both accuracy and fluency (e.g., Explicit Time Drill). .

Known

Examples of High vs. Low Inference Hypotheses

The results of grade-wide benchmarking in math computation show that a target 2nd-grade student computes math facts (‘double-digit subtraction without regrouping’) at approximately half the rate of the median child in the grade.

adopting a low inference model of math skills
Adopting a Low-Inference Model of Math Skills
  • 5 Strands of Mathematical Proficiency
    • Understanding
    • Computing
    • Applying
    • Reasoning
    • Engagement

Source: National Research Council. (2002). Helping children learn mathematics. Mathematics Learning Study Committee, J. Kilpatrick & J. Swafford, Editors, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

formative assessment essential questions50
Formative Assessment: Essential Questions…

2. Is the focus the core curriculum or system, subgroups of underperforming learners, or individual struggling students?

Apply the ‘80-15-5 ‘Rule (T. Christ, 2008) :

  • If less than 80% of students are successfully meeting academic or behavioral goals, the formative assessment focus is on the core curriculum and general student population.
  • If no more than 15% of students are not successful in meeting academic or behavioral goals, the formative assessment focus is on small-group ‘treatments’ or interventions.
  • If no more than 5% of students are not successful in meeting academic or behavioral goals, the formative assessment focus is on the individual student.

Source: Christ, T. (2008). Best practices in problem analysis. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 159-176).

formative assessment essential questions51
Formative Assessment: Essential Questions…

3. What method(s) should be used to measure the target academic skill or behavior?

Formative assessment methods should be as direct a measure as possible of the problem or issue being evaluated. These assessment methods can:

  • Consist of General Outcome Measures or Specific Sub-Skill Mastery Measures
  • Include existing (‘extant’) data from the school system

Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is widely used to track basic student academic skills. Daily Behavior Report Cards (DBRCs) are increasingly used as one source of formative behavioral data.

Source: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools: Procedures to assure scientific-based practices. New York: Routledge.

extant existing data chafouleas et al 2007
Extant (Existing) Data (Chafouleas et al., 2007)
  • Definition: Information that is collected by schools as a matter of course.
  • Extant data comes in two forms:
    • Performance summaries (e.g., class grades, teacher summary comments on report cards, state test scores).
    • Student work products (e.g., research papers, math homework, PowerPoint presentation).

Source: Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C., & Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral assessment: Informing intervention and instruction. New York: Guilford Press.

advantages of using extant data chafouleas et al 2007
Advantages of Using Extant Data (Chafouleas et al., 2007)
  • Information is already existing and easy to access.
  • Students will not show ‘reactive’ effects when data is collected, as the information collected is part of the normal routine of schools.
  • Extant data is ‘relevant’ to school data consumers (such as classroom teachers, administrators, and members of problem-solving teams).

Source: Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C., & Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral assessment: Informing intervention and instruction. New York: Guilford Press.

drawbacks of using extant data chafouleas et al 2007
Drawbacks of Using Extant Data (Chafouleas et al., 2007)
  • Time is required to collate and summarize the data (e.g., summarizing a week’s worth of disciplinary office referrals).
  • The data may be limited and not reveal the full dimension of the student’s presenting problem(s).
  • There is no guarantee that school staff are consistent and accurate in how they collect the data (e.g., grading policies can vary across classrooms; instructors may have differing expectations regarding what types of assignments are given a formal grade; standards may fluctuate across teachers for filling out disciplinary referrals).
  • Little research has been done on the ‘psychometric adequacy’ of extant data sources.

Source: Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C., & Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral assessment: Informing intervention and instruction. New York: Guilford Press.

commercial tests limitations
Commercial Tests: Limitations
  • Compare child to ‘national’ average rather than to class or school peers
  • Have unknown overlap with student curriculum, classroom content
  • Can be given only infrequently
  • Are not sensitive to short-term student gains in academic skills
slide59

Curriculum-Based Measurement/ Assessment: Defining Characteristics:

  • Assesses preselected objectives from local curriculum
  • Has standardized directions for administration
  • Is timed, yielding fluency, accuracy scores
  • Uses objective, standardized, ‘quick’ guidelines for scoring
  • Permits charting and teacher feedback

Source: Wright, J. (1992). Curriculum-based measurement: A manual for teachers. Retrieved on September 4, 2008, from http://www.jimwrightonline.com/pdfdocs/cbaManual.pdf

slide60

CBM Techniques have been developed to assess:

  • Reading fluency
  • Reading comprehension
  • Math computation
  • Writing
  • Spelling
  • Phonemic awareness skills
  • Early math skills
measuring general vs specific academic outcomes
Measuring General vs. Specific Academic Outcomes
  • General Outcome Measures: Track the student’s increasing proficiency on general curriculum goals such as reading fluency. An example is CBM-Oral Reading Fluency (Hintz et al., 2006).
  • Specific Sub-Skill Mastery Measures: Track short-term student academic progress with clear criteria for mastery (Burns & Gibbons, 2008). An example is Letter Identification.

Sources: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools: Procedures to assure scientific-based practices. New York: Routledge. Hintz, J. M., Christ, T. J., & Methe, S. A. (2006). Curriculum-based assessment. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 45-56.

cbm math computation sample goals
CBM Math Computation Sample Goals
  • Addition: Add two one-digit numbers: sums to 18
  • Addition: Add 3-digit to 3-digit with regrouping from ones column only
  • Subtraction: Subtract 1-digit from 2-digit with no regrouping
  • Subtraction: Subtract 2-digit from 3-digit with regrouping from ones and tens columns
  • Multiplication: Multiply 2-digit by 2-digit-no regrouping
  • Multiplication: Multiply 2-digit by 2-digit with regrouping
cbm math computation assessment preparation
CBM Math Computation Assessment: Preparation
  • Select either single-skill or multiple-skill math probe format.
  • Create student math computation worksheet (including enough problems to keep most students busy for 2 minutes)
  • Create answer key
cbm math computation assessment preparation65
CBM Math Computation Assessment: Preparation
  • Advantage of single-skill probes:
    • Can yield a more ‘pure’ measure of student’s computational fluency on a particular problem type
cbm math computation assessment preparation66
CBM Math Computation Assessment: Preparation
  • Advantage of multiple-skill probes:
    • Allow examiner to gauge student’s adaptability between problem types (e.g., distinguishing operation signs for addition, multiplication problems)
    • Useful for including previously learned computation problems to ensure that students retain knowledge.
cbm math computation assessment scoring
CBM Math Computation Assessment: Scoring

Unlike more traditional methods for scoring math computation problems, CBM gives the student credit for each correct digit in the answer. This approach to scoring is more sensitive to short-term student gains and acknowledges the child’s partial competencies in math.

slide74

Question: How can a school use CBM Math Computation probes if students are encouraged to use one of several methods to solve a computation problem—and have no fixed algorithm?

Answer: Students should know their ‘math facts’ automatically. Therefore, students can be given math computation probes to assess the speed and fluency of basic math facts—even if their curriculum encourages a variety of methods for solving math computation problems.

math worksheet generator http www interventioncentral com htmdocs tools mathprobe addsing php
Math Worksheet Generatorhttp://www.interventioncentral.com/htmdocs/tools/mathprobe/addsing.php
example of cbm statewide norms math computation
Example of CBM Statewide Norms: Math Computation

Source: North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Retreived on October 1, 2008, from http://www.ncpublicschools.org/ec/development/learning/responsiveness/rtimaterials

slide77

Source: North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Retreived on October 1, 2008, from http://www.ncpublicschools.org/ec/development/learning/responsiveness/rtimaterials

the application to create cbm early math fluency probes online

The application to create CBM Early Math Fluency probes online

http://www.interventioncentral.org/php/numberfly/numberfly.php

examples of early math fluency number sense cbm probes

Quantity Discrimination

Missing Number

Number Identification

Examples of Early Math Fluency (Number Sense) CBM Probes

Sources: Clarke, B., & Shinn, M. (2004). A preliminary investigation into the identification and development of early mathematics curriculum-based measurement. School Psychology Review, 33, 234–248.

Chard, D. J., Clarke, B., Baker, S., Otterstedt, J., Braun, D., & Katz, R. (2005). Using measures of number sense to screen for difficulties in mathematics: Preliminary findings. Assessment For Effective Intervention, 30(2), 3-14

curriculum based evaluation math vocabulary
Format Option 1

20 vocabulary terms appear alphabetically in the right column. Items are drawn randomly from a ‘vocabulary pool’

Randomly arranged definitions appear in the left column.

The student writes the letter of the correct term next to each matching definition.

The student receives 1 point for each correct response.

Each probe lasts 5 minutes.

2-3 probes are given in a session.

Curriculum-Based Evaluation: Math Vocabulary

Source: Howell, K. W. (2008). Best practices in curriculum-based evaluation and advanced reading. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 397-418).

curriculum based evaluation math vocabulary83
Format Option 2

20 randomly arranged vocabulary definitions appear in the right column. Items are drawn randomly from a ‘vocabulary pool’

The student writes the name of the correct term next to each matching definition.

The student is given 0.5 point for each correct term and another 0.5 point if the term is spelled correctly.

Each probe lasts 5 minutes.

2-3 probes are given in a session.

Curriculum-Based Evaluation: Math Vocabulary

Source: Howell, K. W. (2008). Best practices in curriculum-based evaluation and advanced reading. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 397-418).

how does a secondary school determine a student s math competencies
How Does a Secondary School Determine a Student’s Math Competencies?

“Tests [to assess secondary students’ math knowledge] should be used or if necessary developed that measure students’ procedural fluency as well as their conceptual understanding. Items should range in difficulty from simple applications of the algorithm to more complex. A variety of problem types can be used across assessments to tap students’ conceptual knowledge.” p. 469

Source: Ketterlin-Geller, L. R., Baker, S. K., & Chard, D. J. (2008). Best practices in mathematics instruction and assessment in secondary settings. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp.465-475).

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Identifying and Measuring Complex Academic Problems at the Middle and High School Level: Discrete Categorization
  • Students at the secondary level can present with a range of concerns that interfere with academic success.
  • One frequent challenge for these students is the need to reduce complex global academic goals into discrete sub-skills that can be individually measured and tracked over time.
discrete categorization a strategy for assessing complex multi step student academic tasks
Discrete Categorization: A Strategy for Assessing Complex, Multi-Step Student Academic Tasks

Definition of Discrete Categorization: ‘Listing a number of behaviors and checking off whether they were performed.’ (Kazdin, 1989, p. 59).

  • Approach allows educators to define a larger ‘behavioral’ goal for a student and to break that goal down into sub-tasks. (Each sub-task should be defined in such a way that it can be scored as ‘successfully accomplished’ or ‘not accomplished’.)
  • The constituent behaviors that make up the larger behavioral goal need not be directly related to each other. For example, ‘completed homework’ may include as sub-tasks ‘wrote down homework assignment correctly’ and ‘created a work plan before starting homework’

Source: Kazdin, A. E. (1989). Behavior modification in applied settings (4th ed.). Pacific Gove, CA: Brooks/Cole..

discrete categorization example math study skills
Discrete Categorization Example: Math Study Skills

General Academic Goal: Improve Tina’s Math Study Skills

Tina was struggling in her mathematics course because of poor study skills. The RTI Team and math teacher analyzed Tina’s math study skills and decided that, to study effectively, she needed to:

  • Check her math notes daily for completeness.
  • Review her math notes daily.
  • Start her math homework in a structured school setting.
  • Use a highlighter and ‘margin notes’ to mark questions or areas of confusion in her notes or on the daily assignment.
  • Spend sufficient ‘seat time’ at home each day completing homework.
  • Regularly ask math questions of her teacher.
discrete categorization example math study skills88
Discrete Categorization Example: Math Study Skills

General Academic Goal: Improve Tina’s Math Study Skills

The RTI Team—with student and math teacher input—created the following intervention plan. The student Tina will:

  • Obtain a copy of class notes from the teacher at the end of each class.
  • Check her daily math notes for completeness against a set of teacher notes in 5th period study hall.
  • Review her math notes in 5th period study hall.
  • Start her math homework in 5th period study hall.
  • Use a highlighter and ‘margin notes’ to mark questions or areas of confusion in her notes or on the daily assignment.
  • Enter into her ‘homework log’ the amount of time spent that evening doing homework and noted any questions or areas of confusion.
  • Stop by the math teacher’s classroom during help periods (T & Th only) to ask highlighted questions (or to verify that Tina understood that week’s instructional content) and to review the homework log.
discrete categorization example math study skills89
Discrete Categorization Example: Math Study Skills

Academic Goal: Improve Tina’s Math Study Skills

General measures of the success of this intervention include (1) rate of homework completion and (2) quiz & test grades.

To measure treatment fidelity (Tina’s follow-through with sub-tasks of the checklist), the following strategies are used :

  • Approached the teacher for copy of class notes. Teacher observation.
  • Checked her daily math notes for completeness; reviewed math notes, started math homework in 5th period study hall. Student work products; random spot check by study hall supervisor.
  • Used a highlighter and ‘margin notes’ to mark questions or areas of confusion in her notes or on the daily assignment. Review of notes by teacher during T/Th drop-in period.
  • Entered into her ‘homework log’ the amount of time spent that evening doing homework and noted any questions or areas of confusion. Log reviewed by teacher during T/Th drop-in period.
  • Stopped by the math teacher’s classroom during help periods (T & Th only) to ask highlighted questions (or to verify that Tina understood that week’s instructional content). Teacher observation; student sign-in.
formative assessment essential questions90
Formative Assessment: Essential Questions…

5. How does the school check up on progress toward the goal(s)?

The school periodically checks the formative assessment data to determine whether the goal is being attained. Examples of this progress evaluation process include the following:

  • System-Wide: A school-wide team meets on a monthly basis to review the frequency and type of office disciplinary referrals to judge whether those referrals have dropped below the acceptable threshold for student behavior.
  • Group Level: Teachers at a grade level assembles every six weeks to review CBM math computation data on students receiving small-group Tier 2 instruction to determine whether students are ready to exit (Burns & Gibbons, 2008).
  • Individual Level: A building problem-solving team gathers every eight weeks to review CBM data to a student’s response to an intensive reading fluency plan.

Sources: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools: Procedures to assure scientific-based practices. New York: Routledge.

Shinn, M. R. (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. New York: Guilford.