amphibians the first terrestrial vertebrates n.
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Amphibians : The First Terrestrial Vertebrates. Infraphylum : Vertebrata C lass Amphibia. Amphibia - means “ double life ” Live their lives in the water and on land Tetrapods : 4 muscular limbs & feet Have toes & fingers (digits). History of Amphibians.

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infraphylum vertebrata c lass amphibia
Infraphylum: VertebrataClass Amphibia
  • Amphibia- means “double life”
    • Live their lives in the water and on land
  • Tetrapods:
    • 4 muscular limbs & feet
      • Have toes & fingers (digits)
history of amphibians
History of Amphibians
  • Oldest fossils discovered in Greenland in 1932
    • 400 myofossil- Ichthyostegalia
    • Differences from fish:
      • Loss of some cranial bones
      • Loss of opercular bones
      • Reduction of notochord
      • More rigid vertebral column
      • 4 muscular limbs
      • Loss of fins/rays
      • Presence of vertebrae that fuse the vertebral column and the pelvis
presence of amphibians
Presence of Amphibians
  • All continents except Antarctica
  • Absent from many oceanic islands
  • 6,000 modern species
amphibian characteristics
Amphibian Characteristics
  • Adults are carnivores
  • Circulatory system:
    • 2 chambered heart (atrium & ventricle)
  • Gas exchange: breathe through skin and/or with lungs
  • Ectothermic- body temperature depends on external heat sources
  • Nictitating membrane- transparent lower moveable eyelid
  • Vocalization- species specific
    • Males call to females for mating
class amphibia order caudata
Class: AmphibiaOrder: Caudata
  • Salamanders
  • Mostly found in the N. Hemisphere
  • All have….
    • Tail throughout life
    • Both pairs of legs
  • Terrestrial salamanders
    • Live in the moist, forest-floor litter
    • Aquatic larvae
    • Sometimes live in caves
class amphibia order caudata1
Class: AmphibiaOrder: Caudata
  • Reproduction:
    • Most fertilize internally
      • Males deposit sperm on a substrate and females pick up the sperm with their cloaca
    • Young salamanders look like miniature adults (called newts)
      • Have gills & tail fin
      • May be paedomorphic- undergo metamorphosis while retaining larval characteristics
class amphibia order gymnophiona
Class: AmphibiaOrder: Gymnophiona
  • Caecilians
  • 160 species
    • Confined in tropical regions
  • Worm like burrowers
    • Feed on worms & other invertebrates in the soil
  • “Segments” are folds in the skin
infraphylum vertebrata order anura
Infraphylum: VertebrataOrder: Anura
  • Frogs & Toads
    • Live in moist environments or dry deserts
  • Adults…
    • Lack tails
    • Caudal vertebrae fuse into a rodlike structure (urostyle)
    • Long, muscular hind limbs
      • End in webbed feet
infraphylum vertebrata order anura1
Infraphylum: VertebrataOrder: Anura
  • Fertilize externally
    • Eggs & larvae are aquatic
  • Larvae (tadpoles)
    • Well-developed tail
    • Lack limbs until near adulthood
    • Herbivores
    • Undergo metamorphosis to turn into an adult
frogs vs toads
Frogs VS. Toads

Frogs

Smooth skin

Aquatic habitats

Toads

Dry & warty skin

More terrestrial