Introduction • The branch of Civil Engineering which deals with the design, construction and maintenance of the railway tracks for safe and efficient movements of trains is called Railway Engineering
History • Roads of rails called Wagonwayswere being used in Germany as early as 1550. These primitive railed roads consisted of wooden rails over which horse-drawn wagons or carts moved with greater ease than over dirt roads. Wagonwayswere the beginnings of modern railroads. • By 1776, iron had replaced the wood in the rails and wheels on the carts. • The invention of the steam enginewas critical to the invention of the modern railroad and trains.
Age of Steam • Diesel Engines • Electric Power
Railways • Railway or Permanent-way is the combination of rails, sleepers, fittings, ballast etc.
Definition • Rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the two parallel rails that make up a single railway line.
INDO-PAK policy for Gauge • The total cost of construction railway directly depends on gauges, wider the gauge higher will be the cost. • At the time of construction of railway the policy was adopted that the gauge will depend on the intensity of traffic.
INDO-PAK policy for Gauge Commonly used gauges in INDO-PAK are • Broad Gauge • Meter Gauge • Narrow Gauge
Broad Gauge • Broad gauge refers to any gauge wider than standard gauge or 1,435 mm (4 ft 8½ in) • Broad gauge is used to provide better stability and provide the easy transfer of rolling stock. • It is used for main cities and routes of heavy intensities. • Rolling stock: The locomotives, passenger coaches and goods wagons which roll or run on railway tracks constitute rolling stock.
Meter Gauge • Standard gauge is referred the gauge having a length equal to 1.00-m • It is used in undeveloped area having comparatively Less intensity.
Narrow Gauge In hilly areas and very thinly populated areas where it uneconomical to use Meter gauge, narrow gauge is used. 2’-00” and 2’-6” Narrow gauges are generally used.
Difficulties Due to Change in Gauge • At every change of gauge the passenger have to change the train which cause much inconvenience to the passengers. • At the junction the goods are to be unloaded from the train and loaded into another which requires extra labor and goods likely to be damaged. • The owner will have to pay extra charges for the labors causing increase in the price. • Surplus wagons and engine of the one gauge can not be utilize on the other.
Continued…. • During war times change in gauge causes extremes difficulties to the army and checks their quick movement. • If the intensity of the traffic become more and requires wider gauge it will be impossible to change it because the change in gauge mean changing of each and everything i.e. rails, locomotives, bridges, tunnels etc.