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It’s always darkest just before it goes pitch black. www.despair.com. 13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871). Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points. It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change. Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis.

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slide2

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

Internal turmoil

Military defeats

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

Despite turmoil, Rev. also frees more radical Jacobins, who take power in 1793, to think & act in new innovative ways

Severe measures to restore order: Controlled econ. & Reign of Terror

Nationalism French feel they are defending their own land

Milit. crisis  Universal draft  huge armies using new tactics

Jacobins save France by July, 1794 but Reign of terror Cycle of paranoia< More terror

Thermidorean Reaction overthrows Jacobins Conservative Directory  Temporary relief from Rev. turmoil, but also corruption

Napoleon Bonaparte seizes power, takes over most of Eur Inadvertently spreads rev’s ideas before his fall in 1815)

Fr. undergoes 2 more cycles of monarchy & rev’s (1830 & 1848 Napoleon III seizes power (1851) & develops Fr’s econ. Literate Mid. Cl. That can sustain real democ.

Nap. III replaced by 3rd Republic after his defeat in Franco-Prussian War (1871) Stable democ.

slide5

Recurring aspects of Revolutions

1) Like a fever: reach fever pitch & then die down

slide6

Recurring aspects of Revolutions

1) Like a fever: reach fever pitch & then die down

Might recur several times, but w/less severity

slide7

Recurring aspects of Revolutions

1) Like a fever: reach fever pitch & then die down

Might recur several times, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs.?

slide8

Recurring aspects of Revolutions

1) Like a fever: reach fever pitch & then die down

Might recur several times, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

- English Rev?

slide9

Recurring aspects of Revolutions

1) Like a fever: reach fever pitch & then die down

Might recur several times, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

- Charles I in England

- France?

slide10

Recurring aspects of Revolutions

1) Like a fever: reach fever pitch & then die down

Might recur several times, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

- Charles I in England

- Louis XVI in France

- Russia?

slide11

Recurring aspects of Revolutions

1) Like a fever: reach fever pitch & then die down

Might recur several times, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

- Charles I in England

- Louis XVI in France

- Nicholas II in Russia

- Qing Dynasty in China

slide12

Recurring aspects of Revolutions

1) Like a fever: reach fever pitch & then die down

Might recur several times, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

- Charles I in England

- Louis XVI in France

- Nicholas II in Russia

- Qing Dynasty in China

3) Rev’s go from?

slide13

Recurring aspects of Revolutions

1) Like a fever: reach fever pitch & then die down

Might recur several times, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

- Charles I in England

- Louis XVI in France

- Nicholas II in Russia

- Qing Dynasty in China

3) Rev’s go from arbitrary power to arbitrary power

- England?

slide14

Recurring aspects of Revolutions

1) Like a fever: reach fever pitch & then die down

Might recur several times, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

- Charles I in England

- Louis XVI in France

- Nicholas II in Russia

- Qing Dynasty in China

3) Rev’s go from arbitrary power to arbitrary power

- From Charles I to Cromwell in Eng Rev

- France?

slide15

Recurring aspects of Revolutions

1) Like a fever: reach fever pitch & then die down

Might recur several times, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

- Charles I in England

- Louis XVI in France

- Nicholas II in Russia

- Qing Dynasty in China

3) Rev’s go from arbitrary power to arbitrary power

- From Charles I to Cromwell in Eng Rev

- From Louis XVIJacobinsNapoleon in Fr. Rev.

- Russia?

slide16

Recurring aspects of Revolutions

1) Like a fever: reach fever pitch & then die down

Might recur several times, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

- Charles I in England

- Louis XVI in France

- Nicholas II in Russia

- Qing Dynasty in China

3) Rev’s go from arbitrary power to arbitrary power

- From Charles I to Cromwell in Eng Rev

- From Louis XVIJacobinsNapoleon in Fr. Rev.

- Tsar Nicholas IILenin Stalin in Rus. Rev.

- Qing DynastyMao Zedong in China

slide17

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

GOOD?

slide18

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

BAD?

slide19

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

SUCCESS OF REV & WHY?

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

slide20

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. WHAT HAPPENS TO 1ST GOVT?

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

slide21

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

France’s neighbors?

slide22

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

HOW DOES IT GO?

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

slide23

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

DOMESTIC IMPACT?

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

Military defeats

slide24

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

Internal turmoil

Military defeats

slide25

At the height of the revolution’s crisis, it was said Paris and one-quarter of France were fighting against three-fourths of France & the rest of Europe. While a bit of an exaggeration, the pink areas on this map show how the central government in Paris had to deal with significant portions of France being in open rebellion along with fighting against Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Spain.

slide26

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

DESPITE TURMOIL, REV. ALSODOES WHAT?

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

Internal turmoil

Military defeats

slide27

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

Internal turmoil

Military defeats

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

Despite turmoil, Rev. also frees more radical Jacobins, who take power in 1793, to think & act in new innovative ways

MILITARY INNOVATIONS?

slide28

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

Internal turmoil

Military defeats

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

Despite turmoil, Rev. also frees more radical Jacobins, who take power in 1793, to think & act in new innovative ways

Milit. crisis  Universal draft  huge armies using new tactics

slide29

The revolution in military tactics: attacking in column. The French win a major victory at Fleurus in the Austrian Netherlands in 1794

slide30

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

NEW IDEA & ITS IMPORTANCE?

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

Internal turmoil

Military defeats

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

Despite turmoil, Rev. also frees more radical Jacobins, who take power in 1793, to think & act in new innovative ways

Milit. crisis  Universal draft  huge armies using new tactics

slide31

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

Internal turmoil

Military defeats

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

Despite turmoil, Rev. also frees more radical Jacobins, who take power in 1793, to think & act in new innovative ways

Nationalism French feel they are defending their own land

Milit. crisis  Universal draft  huge armies using new tactics

slide32

The Cult of the Nation

Even before the French Revolution, Europeans were conceiving of the nation in personal terms, portraying it as a young and pure woman for which they would willingly fight and die as martyrs, much as early Christians had been martyred for the Church. Below are several quotations from various men of the 1700s expressing this quasi-religious devotion.

“a nation can only regenerate itself in a bath of blood.”—Diderot

“I long to die for such a true cause; I wish to expire on the bed of glory; I wish to perish at my post.”-- Kasimir Pulaski

”We are ready to let ourselves be buried under the ruins of our liberties”—Etienne Claviere , Genevan revolutionary

“Yes, this delightful land which we inhabit and which nature caresses with love is made to be the domain of liberty and happiness...I am French, I am one of thy representatives!...Oh, sublime people! Accept the sacrifices of my whole being. Happy is the man who is born in your midst; happier is he who can die for your happiness."--Robespierre

slide33

Paintings of heroes who died in the nation’s defense were typically portrayed in the same way as Christian martyrs previously had been depicted, such as the death of the French General Desaix (below).

Right: The Death of Barra, 1881, glorifying the legendary death of a 13-year old French boy who died defending Napoleon’s cavalry horses from brigands. Some 500,000 copies of this painting were distributed to French school boys to inspire their patriotism

slide34

The apotheosis (transformation into deities) of heroes of the nation was a major element of the Cult of the Nation, being bestowed on such leaders as Washington (whose apotheosis is celebrated in the dome of the Capitol building), Franklin (below right), Voltaire (right), Rousseau, and Marat.

slide35

The death of the Jacobin leader, Marat, as immortalized in David’s painting, created as potent a martyr for the Jacobin cause as nearly any religious martyr did for his faith.

slide36

In addition, ordinary soldiers were also deified, as seen in Girodet’s “The Apotheosis Of The French Heroes Who Died For Their Country”

slide37

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

Internal turmoil

Military defeats

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

Despite turmoil, Rev. also frees more radical Jacobins, who take power in 1793, to think & act in new innovative ways

Nationalism French feel they are defending their own land

What else did Jacobins do to save Fr?

Milit. crisis  Universal draft  huge armies using new tactics

slide38

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

Internal turmoil

Military defeats

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

Despite turmoil, Rev. also frees more radical Jacobins, who take power in 1793, to think & act in new innovative ways

Severe measures to restore order: Controlled econ. & Reign of Terror

Nationalism French feel they are defending their own land

Milit. crisis  Universal draft  huge armies using new tactics

slide39

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

Internal turmoil

Military defeats

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

Despite turmoil, Rev. also frees more radical Jacobins, who take power in 1793, to think & act in new innovative ways

Severe measures to restore order: Controlled econ. & Reign of Terror

Nationalism French feel they are defending their own land

Milit. crisis  Universal draft  huge armies using new tactics

Jacobins save France by July, 1794 but Reign of terror Cycle of paranoia< More terror

slide40

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

Internal turmoil

Military defeats

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

Despite turmoil, Rev. also frees more radical Jacobins, who take power in 1793, to think & act in new innovative ways

Severe measures to restore order: Controlled econ. & Reign of Terror

Nationalism French feel they are defending their own land

Milit. crisis  Universal draft  huge armies using new tactics

Jacobins save France by July, 1794 but Reign of terror Cycle of paranoia< More terror

Thermidorean Reaction overthrows Jacobins Conservative Directory 

slide41

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

Internal turmoil

Military defeats

Even fashions went through radical changes to reflect the revolutionary changes in the rest of society

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

Despite turmoil, Rev. also frees more radical Jacobins, who take power in 1793, to think & act in new innovative ways

Severe measures to restore order: Controlled econ. & Reign of Terror

Nationalism French feel they are defending their own land

Milit. crisis  Universal draft  huge armies using new tactics

Jacobins save France by July, 1794 but Reign of terror Cycle of paranoia< More terror

Thermidorean Reaction overthrows Jacobins Conservative Directory  Temporary relief from Rev. turmoil, but also corruption

slide42

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

Internal turmoil

Military defeats

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

Despite turmoil, Rev. also frees more radical Jacobins, who take power in 1793, to think & act in new innovative ways

Severe measures to restore order: Controlled econ. & Reign of Terror

Nationalism French feel they are defending their own land

Milit. crisis  Universal draft  huge armies using new tactics

Jacobins save France by July, 1794 but Reign of terror Cycle of paranoia< More terror

Thermidorean Reaction overthrows Jacobins Conservative Directory  Temporary relief from Rev. turmoil, but also corruption

Napoleon Bonaparte seizes power, takes over most of Eur Inadvertently spreads rev’s ideas before his fall in 1815)

slide43

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

Internal turmoil

Military defeats

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

Despite turmoil, Rev. also frees more radical Jacobins, who take power in 1793, to think & act in new innovative ways

Severe measures to restore order: Controlled econ. & Reign of Terror

Nationalism French feel they are defending their own land

Milit. crisis  Universal draft  huge armies using new tactics

Jacobins save France by July, 1794 but Reign of terror Cycle of paranoia< More terror

Thermidorean Reaction overthrows Jacobins Conservative Directory  Temporary relief from Rev. turmoil, but also corruption

Napoleon Bonaparte seizes power, takes over most of Eur Inadvertently spreads rev’s ideas before his fall in 1815)

Fr. undergoes 2 more cycles of monarchy & rev’s (1830 & 1848 Napoleon III seizes power (1851) & develops Fr’s econ. Literate Mid. Cl. That can sustain real democ.

slide46

Recurring aspects of Rev’s

1) Like a fever:feverpitchdie down

Might recur sev.X, but w/less severity

2) Rev’s succeed vs. weak-willed regimes

-Charles I in Eng

-Louis XVI in Fr

-Nicholas II in Rus

-Qing Dyn in China

3) Rev’s go from arb. power to arb. power

-Charles I-> Cromwell

-Louis XVIJacobinsNap.

-Nicholas IILenin Stalin

-Qing DynMao Zedong

13.2 THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1871)

Rev. starts moderately  Good & bad points

It seems more acceptable since it’s not too radical a change

Can’t take the drastic measures needed to solve the crisis

Confusion, frustration & turmoil caused by the transition b/w types of govt. More radical Girondins take over

Fr’s neighbors decl. war to stop rev. from spreading

Internal turmoil

Military defeats

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

CRISIS STAGE

OF THE

REVOLUTION

Despite turmoil, Rev. also frees more radical Jacobins, who take power in 1793, to think & act in new innovative ways

Severe measures to restore order: Controlled econ. & Reign of Terror

Nationalism French feel they are defending their own land

Milit. crisis  Universal draft  huge armies using new tactics

Jacobins save France by July, 1794 but Reign of terror Cycle of paranoia< More terror

Thermidorean Reaction overthrows Jacobins Conservative Directory  Temporary relief from Rev. turmoil, but also corruption

Napoleon Bonaparte seizes power, takes over most of Eur Inadvertently spreads rev’s ideas before his fall in 1815)

Fr. undergoes 2 more cycles of monarchy & rev’s (1830 & 1848 Napoleon III seizes power (1851) & develops Fr’s econ. Literate Mid. Cl. That can sustain real democ.

Nap. III replaced by 3rd Republic after his defeat in Franco-Prussian War (1871) Stable democ.