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Irish IPv6 Task Force. IPv6 and Quality of Service. Irish IPv6 Task Force IPv6 Training Slide-sets. The Bigger Picture: Why is IPv6 so Important? Introduction to IPv6 Fundamentals (technical) IPv6 Deployment & Strategy (technical) The Business Case for IPv6 Mobile IPv6 (technical)

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Irish ipv6 task force l.jpg

Irish IPv6 Task Force

IPv6 and Quality of Service

Irish IPv6 Task Force - http://www.ipv6.ie/


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Irish IPv6 Task ForceIPv6 Training Slide-sets

  • The Bigger Picture: Why is IPv6 so Important?

  • Introduction to IPv6 Fundamentals (technical)

  • IPv6 Deployment & Strategy (technical)

  • The Business Case for IPv6

  • Mobile IPv6 (technical)

  • IPv6 Quality of Service (technical)<- This slide set is sixth in a series

  • IPv6 Security (technical)


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Presentation Structure

  • Introduction

  • What is QoS?

  • How is it used?

  • How is it implemented?

  • What is its current state in the Internet?

  • How does IPv6 fit into the QoS picture.


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IPv6 and QoS –

Introduction


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Introduction

  • Quality of Service (QoS).

  • Sometimes said “Kwos”.

  • Many things to many people.

  • Basically: making network good enough for apps.



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QoS: What is the aim?

  • Network needs to be good enough.

  • How do we measure good?

    • Enough bandwidth?

    • Enough buffering?

    • Short enough delay?

    • Consistent enough delay?

    • Enough packets arrive intact?

  • Often summarised as delay, loss, jitter, bw, …



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QoS: Typical Uses

  • Video/Voice traffic more sensitive than bulk data.

  • Safety critical traffic may be protected.

  • ISPs may prioritise premium customers.

  • Netadmins may protect control traffic (BGP, ssh, …)

  • Gamers don’t want to get fragged!

  • Preventing virtual links from interacting.

  • Interactive applications usually have some QoS needs.

    • Dialup and the World Wide Wait.



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QoS: How to achieve?

  • If network is big and empty, QoS is easy.

    • Known as overprovisioning.

  • Otherwise identify traffic’s needs.

  • Treat traffic differently based on needs.

  • (Im)Possible to meet some/all needs?


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QoS Architecture

  • We need to -

    • identify the traffic.

    • check that it is in spec.

    • decide how to queue it.

    • decide how to serve the queues.

    • manage, account and configure all this.


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IntServ

  • One of two standardised frameworks for IP QoS.

  • Hosts ask routers to treat particular flow specially.

  • They use the Reservation Protocol (RSVP).

  • It describes how to match packets and required QoS.

  • Each router has to track each flow.

  • Signalling and tracking makes scaling harder.


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DiffServ

  • Offer applications a short menu of QoS types.

  • Type required is written into small field in packet.

  • Menu items are called Per-Hop-Behaviours (PHB).

  • The field is called the Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) value.

  • Routers look at packets and decide how to queue.

  • Limited menu may not suit all apps.

  • No active negotiation, so need to police settings.

  • All traffic with same DSCP is treated in same way.


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Manual/ad hoc

  • Manual configuration always an option.

  • May partially fit into some bigger scheme.

  • Examples:

    • 802.11 gives some control packets high priority.

    • A 3G operator might make Skype packets low priority.

    • A router might move BGP packets to head of queue.



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QoS Today

  • Not widely deployed in public Internet.

  • Inter-network issues too great relative to demand?

    • Inter ISP policing, monitoring, charging, …

  • DiffServ and manual more widely deployed in ISPs and enterprise networks.

  • Most common solution is lots of bandwidth.

  • Becoming more common in home appliances with VoIP and video streaming.

  • Wireless an interesting case - overprovisioning much harder.



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IP(v6) and QoS

  • Any packet matching system must be able to deal with IPv4/IPv6 packets.

  • Often involves fields in TCP/IP headers, such as addresses, protocols and ports.

  • Need to extend to be able to deal with IPv6 addresses.

  • The DSCP value lives in the Type of Service (ToS) field in IPv4.

  • The DSCP value lives in the Traffic Class (TC) field in IPv6.


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IPv6 Flow Label

  • IPv6 has new flow label header.

  • 20 bits to identify flows.

  • Determined by end hosts.

  • Intended to facilitate QoS.

  • Could be used by IntServ to pick out flows.

  • Might help identify encrypted flows for QoS.

  • No final answer yet, but additional flexibility.


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IPv6 Side Effects

  • Less NAT means flows easier to identify

  • Better mobility -> better network path -> better QoS.

  • IPv6 extension headers may be applied to QoS in future.

  • IPv6 transition mechanisms can lead to poor performance if carelessly deployed!

  • E.g. Many tunnels in 6bone lead to scenic routing.

    • 6bone now retired and production routing is being refined.

  • QoS and IPv6 support are often considered advanced features, vendors sometimes unclear about their interactions.


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    Summary

    • QoS allows traffic with special requirements to be treated specially.

    • DiffServ and manually configured QoS have some deployment.

    • As long as IPv6 packets can be classified, QoS in the IPv4 and IPv6 looks similar.

    • The IPv6 Flow Label is intended to facilitate QoS flow identification.


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    Acknowledgements

    This presentation includes some material from these other sources:

    • Name of person/people ???

      (organisation??)


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    Contact

    Mícheál Ó Foghlú

    Research Director

    Telecommunications Software & Systems Group

    Waterford Institute of Technology

    Cork Road

    Waterford

    Ireland

    +353 51 302963 (w)

    mofoghlu@tssg.org

    http://www.tssg.org

    http://www.ofoghlu.net/log (Personal Blog)


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    Further Information

    Web Sites:

    • National Irish IPv6 Centre http://www.ipv6-ireland.org

    • Irish IPv6 Task Force http://www.ipv6.ie

    • IPv6 ePrints Server (Public Documents) http://www.6journal.org/

    • IPv6 Dissemination (Public Training) http://www.6diss.org/tutorials/

      Individual Documents/Presentations:

    • http://arstechnica.com/articles/paedia/IPv6.ars/1 (Iljitsch van Beijnum, 7th March 2007)

    • http://bgp.potaroo.net/ipv4/ (Geoff Huston APNIC, 2006)

    • http://www.6journal.org/archive/00000261/02/WWC_IPv6_Forum_Roadmap__Vision_2010_v6.pdf (IPv6 Forum Roadmap & Vision, 2006)

    • http://colab.cim3.net/file/work/Expedition_Workshop/2005-12-06_Advancing_Information_Sharing_And_Data_Architecture/IPV6/NIST%20ipv6-doc-eai-v4%2012062005.ppt (Doug Montgomery NIST, 2005)


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    Thank you!This presentation has been shared under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales Licence(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk)by the Irish IPv6 Task Force(http://www.ipv6.ie)Please acknowledge this source if you use it for free or for profit

    Irish IPv6 Task Force - http://www.ipv6.ie/