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Tribhuwan University Department of Conflict, Peace and Development Studies. CPDS 5331: Development Studies. Unit IV: Development and Peacebuilding Nexus (1 st Seminar : 19 January 2014). Development and Peacebuilding Nexus.

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tribhuwan university department of conflict peace and development studies

Tribhuwan UniversityDepartment of Conflict, Peace and Development Studies

CPDS 5331: Development Studies

Unit IV: Development and Peacebuilding Nexus

(1st Seminar : 19 January 2014)

development and peacebuilding nexus

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus

  • One cannot be achieved at the cost of other; one is the prerequisite of other; they are mutually inclusive.

It is very obvious that development and peacebuilding are two parts of a same coin; they are interlinked and go simultaneously.

development and peacebuilding nexus2

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus

Whereas development fosters peacebuilding process and vice-versa, violence festers development process by restricting human beings from attaining their basic needs namely: survival, well-being, identity, and freedom needs.(Galtung:1996).

(A Typology of Violence: Galtung 1996 : 197)

development and peacebuilding nexus3

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus

  • People in fragile and conflict-affected states are more than twice as likely to be undernourished as those in other developing countries, more than three times as likely to be unable to send their children to school, twice as likely to see their children die before age five and more than twice as likely to lack clean water. (World Bank 2011: 5)

Countries suffering from conflicts have been unable to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG).

development and peacebuilding nexus5

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus

Of the countries with infant mortality greater than 100 per 1,000 in 1990, those not affected by conflict have reduced infant mortality by 31 percent—while fragile and conflict-affected states reduced it by only 19 percent (World Bank 2011: 63).

development and peacebuilding nexus6

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus

Major violence over the period from 1981 to 2005 has a poverty rate 21 percentage points higher than a country that saw no violence (World Bank 2011: 5)

development and peacebuilding nexus7

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus

  • As violence affects negatively in developmentactivities, consequently it reduces development aid as well.

Violence has a severe impact on national economy. People suffer from unemployment; investors do not take risk to invest.

development and peacebuilding nexus8
In Guatemala, violence cost the country more than 7 percent of GDP in 2005, more than twice the damage by Hurricane Stan in the same year—and more than twice the combined budget for agriculture, health, and education. The average cost of civil war is equivalent to more than 30 years of GDP growth for a medium so size developing country (World Bank 2011: 5).

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus

Violence has a severe impact on national economy; it has an unimaginable monetary costs.

  • For countries that have gone through civil war, recovering to original growth paths takes an average of 14 years of peace. Until 1990, Burkina Faso and Burundi had similar incomes and growth paths. With the onset of civil war in Burundi, real incomes declined to 1970 levels. With no major conflicts, Burkina Faso now has an income more than two-and-a-half times that of Burundi (World Bank 2011: 63).
development and peacebuilding nexus9
Violence breeds violence: generation living with violence are more likely to commit violence that might increase the crime such as sexual violence.

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus

  • Mass rapes have occurred in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Liberia, Peru, and Uganda, In Rwanda’s 1994 genocide alone, an estimated 250,000 rapes took place (World Bank 2011)
  • Violence also has a lasting effect on human rights. The Physical Rights Integrity Index, a measure of respect for human rights, drops on average by 3.6 points over the course of a major civil war (on a scale of 0–8, with a score of 0 indicating no government respect for human rights) (World Bank 2011:64).
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The development consequences of violence, like its origins, spill across borders, with implications for neighbours, for the region, and globally. Violence in one country can create a “bad neighbourhood.”

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus

  • a study of 18 Western European countries revealed that each additional transnational terrorist incident reduced their economic growth by 0.4 of a percentage point a year. Attacks in one region can impose costs all through global markets—one attack in the Niger Delta can cost global consumers of oil billions in increased prices. In the four weeks following the beginning of the uprising in Libya, oil prices increased by 15 percent ( World Bank 2011: 5)
  • A country making development advances, such as Tanzania, loses an estimated 0.7 percent of GDP every year for each neighbour in conflict. Refugees and internally displaced persons have increased threefold in the last 30 years. Nearly 75 percent of the world’s refugees are hosted by neighbouring countries (World Bank 2011: page 5)
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Yet when security is re-established and sustained, these areas of the world can make the greatest development gains. Several countries emerging from long legacies of both political and criminal violence have been among the fastest making progress on the MDGs (World Bank 2011: 6) :

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus

  • Ethiopia more than quadrupled access to improved water, from 13 percent of the population in 1990 to 66 percent in 2009–10.
  • Mozambique more than tripled its primary completion rate in just eight years, from 14 percent in 1999 to 46 percent in 2007.
  • Rwanda cut the prevalence of under nutrition from 56 percent of the population in 1997 to 40 percent in 2005.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina, between 1995 and 2007, increased measles immunizations from 53 percent to 96 percent for children aged 12–23 months.
development and peacebuilding nexus world bank s model of peacebuilding3
Where states, markets, and social institutions fail to provide basic security, justice, and economic opportunities for citizens, conflict can escalate (World Bank 2011: 7)

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus: World Bank’s Model of Peacebuilding

To break cycles of insecurity and reduce the risk of their recurrence, national reformers and their international partners need to build the legitimate institutions that can provide a sustained level of citizen security, justice, and jobs . (World Bank 2011: 8)

development and peacebuilding nexus criticism

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus: Criticism

  • Do the current development practices really serve peacebuilding process?
development and peacebuilding nexus criticism1
According to Uvin (2002), Development and Peacebuilding nexus is built on the following assumption:

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus: Criticism

  • 1. Development by definition promotes peace; thus , no changes in development practice are required –more of it.
  • 2. Security sector reform assists recipients with reform of their military, police and judicial systems in ways that improve governance and decrease violence.
  • 3. In countries coming out of war, aid agencies invest in new fields such as justice and reconciliation, demobilization and reintegration and democratic policing
development and peacebuilding nexus criticism2
4. The “Do No Harm” approach: minimize the negative impact of all humanitarian and development assistance under conditions of conflict

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus: Criticism

  • 5. Agencies undertake a range of early and preferably coherent and coordinated actions to prevent conflict from turning violent;
  • 6. The concept of human security: ‘freedom from fear’ and ‘freedom from want’ are inseparable sides of the same coin; and,
  • 7. The ‘Global system reform’ movement: infuses concerns with development and conflict nexus in all North-South relations of trade, investment , and consumption.
development and peacebuilding nexus criticism3
1. Development by definition promotes peace; thus , no changes in development practice are required –more of it.

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus: Criticism

  • Not necessarily; all peaceful country are not developed; there rarely is any evidence that shows the causal relationship between economic development and peace
  • …there is a tacit belief that while underdevelopment induces conflict, development is somehow conflict-free; but this is not the case. Transitions to political democracy and market economies are fraught with conflict (Stedman 1995 quoted in Univ 2002:7)
development and peacebuilding nexus criticism4
2. Security sector reform assists recipients with reform of their military, police and judicial systems in ways that improve governance and decrease violence.

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus: Criticism

  • Security sector reform is politically very sensitive;
  • It appears to be guided by the vested interest of the powerful country and the money lending multilateral agencies such as IMF to impose their agenda on the sovereign developing country
  • In 1999-200 Uganda and Zimbabwe were strongly pressured by IMF to cut down their military expenditure … Meanwhile no pressure was applied to Rwanda –the prime instigator of the Congolese war –until mid 2002 (Uvin 2002: 8)
development and peacebuilding nexus criticism5
3. In countries coming out of war, aid agencies invest in new fields such as justice and reconciliation, demobilization and reintegration and democratic policing

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus: Criticism

  • Post conflict agenda are temporary in nature which does not serve peacebuilding as it is a long and painstaking process
  • Objectives of the donor agencies and national government may conflict and may further push in very different directions
  • Risk of dependency syndrome “social change must pass through donors their sympathy and funds”
  • Negative impacts: mushrooming of NGOs, germination of neo-elites, sudden rise in price
  • Apololitical; ahistoricity
development and peacebuilding nexus criticism6
4. The “Do No Harm” approach: minimize the negative impact of all humanitarian and development assistance under conditions of conflict

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus: Criticism

  • Developed by Mary Anderson based on the experience that development aid is likely to serve the conflict and peace.
  • Aid resources are often stole n by warriors and used to support armies and buy weapons
  • All aid may have an impact on conflict dynamics, and thus opens the door to a re-conceptualisation of the entire aid enterprise.
development and peacebuilding nexus criticism7
5. Agencies undertake a range of early and preferably coherent and coordinated actions to prevent conflict from turning violent;

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus: Criticism

  • Early warning of conflict prevention are basically expert-based. They are based on specialists discussing among themselves with the aim of somehow mastering reality better, rather than engaging in open dialogues or promoting local knowledge generation.
development and peacebuilding nexus criticism8
6. The concept of human security: ‘freedom from fear’ and ‘freedom from want’ are inseparable sides of the same coin; and,

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus: Criticism

  • - Human Security is a very vague agenda. Security from what? Terrorism? Mass killing diseases?
  • - Human security concepts holds the promise of achieving two goals: more firmly embedding concerns with insecurity and violence into development work and adding more attention to poverty and empowerment into high politics (Uvin, 2002: 18)
development and peacebuilding nexus criticism9
7. The ‘Global system reform’ movement: infuses concerns with development and conflict nexus in all North-South relations of trade, investment , and consumption.

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus: Criticism

  • It encompasses the the vested interest of the Global North to avail market and impose their agenda on the Global South.
development and peacebuilding nexus criticism10
Reading:
  • Galtung, Johan (1975), Three approaches to peace: peacekeeping, peacemaking and peacebuilding, in Peace, War and Defense –Essays in Peace Research, ed. J. Galtung, 282-304. Copenhagen: Christian Ejlers.

Development and Peacebuilding Nexus: Criticism

  • _____, (1996), “Cultural Violence” in Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and civilization, Oslo/London: PRIO/Sage Publications, pp. 196-210.

Sen, Amartya (1999) Development and Freedom, New York: Oxford University Press

  • Uvin, Peter(2002), “The Development/Peacebuilding Nexus: A Typology and History of Changing Paradigms , Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, Vol 1, No. 1, pp.5-24.
  • World Bank (2011), World Bank Report 2011: Conflict, Security and Development, Washington DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.
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