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Carbon. Allotropes. Carbon can bond with itself in at least three different ways giving us 3 different materials Diamond Graphite Buckyballs and nanotubes. Diamond. Carbons are bonded via sp 3 hybridization to 4 other carbon atoms forming a giant network covalent compound.

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Presentation Transcript
allotropes
Allotropes
  • Carbon can bond with itself in at least three different ways giving us 3 different materials
    • Diamond
    • Graphite
    • Buckyballs and nanotubes
diamond
Diamond
  • Carbons are bonded via sp3 hybridization to 4 other carbon atoms forming a giant network covalent compound.
properties of diamond
Properties of Diamond
  • High melting point due to strong directional covalent bonds (3550 C)
  • Extremely hard because it is difficult to break atoms apart or move them in relation to one another
  • No electrical conductivity because electrons are localized in specific bonds
  • Insoluble in polar and non-polar solvents because molecular bonds are stronger than any intermolecular forces
graphite
Graphite
  • Carbon atoms are bonded via sp2 hybridization.
  • Carbon atoms form sheets of six sided rings with p-orbitals perpendicular from plane of ring.
graphite structure
Graphite Structure
  • Carbon has 4 valence e- to bond with. 3 are used for closest atoms in rings. 1 is delocalized in p-orbitals
  • The presence of p-orbitals allows for strong van der waals forces that hold the sheets together
properties of graphite
Properties of Graphite
  • Different from Diamond
    • Conducts electricity because of delocalized electrons
    • Slippery can be used as lubricant, sheets can easily slip past each other (think of a deck of cards)
  • Same as Diamond
    • High melting point (higher actually because of delocalized e-, 3653C)
    • Insoluble (same reason)
fullerenes
Fullerenes
  • Buckyballs: spherical
  • Nanotubes: tube shaped
  • Both have very interesting properties
    • Super strong
    • Conduct electricity and heat with low resistance
    • Free radical scavenger
buckyballs
Buckyballs
  • Carbon atoms bond in units of 60 atoms (C-60) forming a structure similar to a soccerball with interlocking six sided and five sided rings.
  • sp2 hybridization
  • Extra p-orbitals form pi bonds resulting in
    • Electrical conductivity
    • Stronger covalent bonds, therefore stronger materials