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Nutrition. What are Calories?. Way food scientists measure food energy Kilocalorie – the amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of a kilogram (1 liter) of water 1 degree Celsius – aka calorie. Sources of Calories. Carbohydrates – 4 per gram Protein – 4 per gram

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what are calories
What are Calories?
  • Way food scientists measure food energy
  • Kilocalorie – the amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of a kilogram (1 liter) of water 1 degree Celsius – aka calorie
sources of calories
Sources of Calories
  • Carbohydrates – 4 per gram
  • Protein – 4 per gram
  • Fat – 9 per gram
  • Alcohol – 7 per gram
essential nutrients
Essential Nutrients
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Fats
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water
Provides energy

4 calories per gram (size of a small paper clip)

Simple Carbs

Refined sugars

Contain no other nutrients – proteins, vitamins, minerals, or fiber

Broken down quickly – mostly in small intestines

Complex Carbs

Broken down slowly

Slows down digestion – less hungry

Eating proper amount provides energy for body

Carbs have less calories gram for gram than dietary fats

Human bodies must convert glucose to fats – which in the process causes most of the calories to be lost

benefits of complex carbohydrates
Benefits of Complex Carbohydrates
  • Reduce risk of colon cancer
  • Reduce energy consumption – helps with weight control
  • Reduce risk of heart and artery disease
  • Promote feeling of fullness
  • Prevent bacterial infections
  • Keep muscles of digestive tract healthy
  • Builds and repairs the body
  • 4 calories per gram
  • Stored energy
  • 9 calories per gram
  • Saturated, polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated fats
  • Regulates body functions
  • Should come from diet
  • No calories or energy value
  • act to build and regulate the body's tissues and organs, bones and muscles
  • No calories or energy value
  • Helps regulate body temperature
  • 8 glasses per day
  • Increase with physical activity
  • No calories or energy value
where calories should come from
Where calories should come from:
  • 50-60% from carbohydrates
  • 12-15% protein
  • less than 30% from fat
types of energy
Types of energy
  • Protein – gives body energy in same way as carbs – no advantage over carbs
  • Fats – cause problems
  • Carbs – preferred energy souce
body s use of fuels
Body’s use of “fuels”
  • Uses mix of carbohydrates (glucose), fatty acids, and amino acids (protein) for energy.
  • During rest: ½ from fats ½ from carbs
  • Physical activity: mostly glucose – sends energy throughout body – leads to use of fat and protein
  • A high carb diet can triple an athlete’s endurance
  • High fat diet: 57 minutes of maximum endurance
  • Normal mixed diet: 114 minutes of maximum endurance
  • High carb diet: 167 minutes of maximum endurance
mypyramid usda s new food guidance system

MyPyramidUSDA’s New Food Guidance System

United States Department of Agriculture

Center for Nutrition Policy & Promotion

anatomy of my pyramid
Anatomy of My Pyramid

Activity = by the steps and the person climbing them, the importance of daily physical activity.

Moderation = the narrowing of each food group from bottom to top. The wider base stands for foods with little or no solid fats or added sugars. These should be selected more often. The narrower top area stands for foods containing more added sugars and solid fats. The more active you are, the more of these foods can fit into your diet.

Personalization = the person on the steps, the slogan, and the URL. Find the kinds of amounts of food to eat each day at

Proportionality = the different widths of the food group bands. The widths suggest how much food a person should choose from each group. The widths are just a general guide, not exact proportions. Check the Web site for how much is right for you.

Variety = symbolized by the 6 color bands representing the 5 food groups of the

Pyramid and oils. Foods from all groups are needed each day for good health.

Gradual Improvement = encouraged by the slogan. It suggests that individuals can

benefit from taking small steps to improve their diet and lifestyle each day.

message physical activity
Message: Physical Activity

In the Dietary Guidelines:

  • Engage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activities to promote health, psychological well-being, and a healthy body weight.

In MyPyramid graphic:

  • Steps and person on them symbolize that physical activity should be a part of everyday healthy living.
message moderation
Message: Moderation

In the Dietary Guidelines:

  • Limit intake of saturated and trans fats, and choose products low in these fats.
  • Make choices of meat, poultry, dry beans, and milk products that are lean, low-fat, or fat-free.
  • Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or calorie sweeteners.

In MyPyramid graphic:

  • Food group bands narrow from

bottom to top suggesting to eat

nutrient-dense forms of foods.

additional messages in the mypyramid graphic to foster implementation
Additional Messages in the MyPyramid GraphicTo foster implementation


  • The name “MyPyramid” suggests an individual approach.
  • The person climbing the steps mentally links each viewer to the image.

Gradual Improvement:

  • The slogan “Steps to a Healthier You” suggests that improvement should happen in stages, over time.
message proportionality
Message: Proportionality

In the Dietary Guidelines:

  • Adopt a balanced eating pattern.
    • Sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables,
    • 3 or more ounce equivalents of whole-grain products per day
    • 3 cup equivalents per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or milk products.

In MyPyramid graphic:

  • Differing widths of the color bands suggest about how much food should be eaten from each group.
final graphic design
Final Graphic Design

Activity Proportionality

Moderation Variety

Personalization Gradual



Key food group messages from the Dietary Guidelines and MyPyramid:

Focus on fruits.

Vary your veggies.

Get your calcium-rich foods.

Make half your grains whole.

Go lean with protein.

Know the limits on fats, salt, and sugars.

dietary guidelines weight management
Dietary GuidelinesWeight Management
  • 2005
  • Balance calories from food and beverages w/ calories expended.
  • Follow USDA Food Guide for appropriate calorie requirements based on age and physical activity levels.
dietary guidelines adequate nutrients
Dietary GuidelinesAdequate Nutrients
  • Consume a variety of nutrient dense foods and beverages. Follow a balanced eating pattern such as USDA Food Guide or DASH eating plan
dietary guidelines food group to encourage
Dietary GuidelinesFood Group to Encourage
  • 2 cups fruit
  • 2 ½ veggies, Consume enough fruits and veggies while staying w/i energy needs.
  • At least ½ of grains should be whole grain at least 3 oz.
  • 3 cups of milk fat-free, low-fat or equivalent.
dietary guidelines fat
Dietary GuidelinesFat
  • Keep total fat between 20 – 35 % of calories w/ most fats coming from polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats.
dietary guidelines salt
Dietary GuidelinesSalt
  • Consume < 2,300 mg include potassium-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables.
dietary guidelines sugar
Dietary GuidelinesSugar
  • Choose and prepare food with little added sugar or caloric sweeteners
dietary guidelines physical activity
Dietary GuidelinesPhysical Activity
  • Engage in activity, 30 minutes a day on most days of the week. To manage weight, engage in activity 60 minutes a day on most days of the week of moderate or vigorous activity w/o exceeding calorie intake requirements
dietary guidelines food safety
Dietary GuidelinesFood Safety
  • Clean hands, surfaces and produce. Meat and poultry should not be washed or rinsed
  • Avoided raw unpasteurized milk or products made from unpasteurized milk, raw or partially raw cooked eggs or food containing raw or undercooked eggs, meat, poultry, unpasteurized juices or raw sprouts.
reasons for revising updating the science
Reasons for Revising—Updating the Science
  • To ensure that the guidance reflects the latest nutrition science
    • New nutrient standards—DRI
    • New Dietary Guidelines
    • Food consumption and composition data
developing food intake patterns
Developing Food Intake Patterns
  • Determine calorie needs
  • Set nutrient goals
  • Calculate nutrient profiles for each food group, based on
    • Nutrient content of foods in group
    • Food consumption
  • Construct food patterns that meet goals
determine calorie needs estimated energy requirements for males
Determine Calorie NeedsEstimated Energy Requirements* for males

*From the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intakes Macronutrient Report

construct food intake patterns
Construct Food Intake Patterns
  • Establish initial amount from each food group
  • Compare resulting nutrient content to nutritional goals
  • Change amounts from food groups stepwise
    • Identify groups or subgroups that are the most feasible nutrient sources
    • Check amounts recommended against typical consumption
  • Remaining calories after nutrient needs were met were identified as “discretionary calories”
discretionary calories may be used to
Discretionary Calories May be used to:
  • Increase amount of food selected from a food group
  • Consume foods that are not in the lowest fat form—such as 2% milk or medium-fat meat or items that contain added sugars
  • Add oil, fat, or sugar to foods
  • Consume alcohol (for those who consume alcohol)


Daily Amounts

in cups or ounces

  • Implementation is the challenge ahead.
  • Health/education professionals are vital for success.
  • It will be an ongoing process.
  • Working together, we can help Americans to be healthier.
convenience foods
Convenience Foods

What are convenience foods?

convenience foods59
What is a convenience food?

Pre- packed frozen entrées

TV dinners

Boxed meals, add meat

Fast Foods – Drive Thru

Carry out

Order & Pick up

Convenience Foods
convenience foods60

2 x’s more sodium than if food was made from scratch

Less nutritionally beneficial ingredients (added sugars and preservatives)

Convenience Foods
convenience foods61

Allow for quality “family” time for working parents


Ease & quick to prepare

Convenience Foods
increased access to fast food
Fast food, late 1930’s w/ Carl’s, McDonald’s and Burger King

1940’s Wendy’s, KFC, Taco Bell, etc

Easy to find

Easy for working parents to depend on

Fast food, obesity has been on the rise

65% of fast food business is drive-through

“For every 6 seconds saved at the drive through, sales increase by 1 %.” Per McD’s Jack Greenberg

Increased Access to Fast Food
required on all labels
Required on all Labels
  • Name
  • Net weight or net contents
  • Artificial coloring, flavoring, preservatives
  • Name & address of production
  • style/product description
  • Special info affecting those with health problems
  • List of ingredients – most to least
notes to know
Notes to know
  • Ingredients largest to smallest
  • % of daily value based on 2000 calorie diet (indicated in one serving)
  • Total sodium intake < 2300 mg per day
  • Nutritional facts required when claims made
label conformity
Label Conformity
  • Serving or portion sizes
  • Servings or portions per container
  • Calories from fat per serving
  • % DV – fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate
  • % Vit A, C, calcium & iron
  • % DV based on a 2,000 or 2,500 cal diet
labels nutritional claims
Low in – can be eaten frequently w/o exceeding recommended amount

Cal – 40 or less

Fat – 3 g or less

Sat fat – < 1 g

Cholesterol - <20mg

Sodium - <140 mg

Reduced, less, or fewer - > 25% less of something than a comparison food

Light – reduced by > 1/3 regular product

Good source of – 10-19% DV for a nutrient

High source of fiber - > 20% DV fiber

Labels & Nutritional claims
label ease step 1
Label-Ease Step 1
  • Make a fist
  • Raise one finger for each nutrient -





Vitamin A

Vitamin C

that has 10% or more listed for % DV

label ease step 2
Label-Ease Step 2
  • Fingers from step one should be up
  • Choose to focus on fat grams or calories
  • For fat, put one finger down if % DV is > 10%
  • For calories, put one finger down if total calories > 200 per serving
label ease score
Label-Ease Score
  • Nutrient-plus food – at least one finger remaining
  • Nutrient-minus food – no fingers up



p o r t i o n d i s t o r t i o n
“Bigger is Better”

Need to get your money’s worth when eating out


Serving of juice = 4 oz.

Bottles in a vending machine = 16 oz.

4 servings in one bottle – consumed in one seating

20 Years Ago

3 inch diameter

140 calories


6 inch diameter

350 calories

20 Years Ago

333 calories


590 calories

check this out
7 Ways to Help Cure Portion distortion

Eat portions the size of a small fist

Watch out for inflation

Snack before dinner

Split the entrée

Think small

Don’t serve from the table

Beware of eating in front of the TV

Check this out
liquid calories
Where do they come from?



Sports Drinks

Fruit Drinks

Sweetened teas

* All calories count!

Liquid Calories
orange juice
4 oz. serving

60 calories

16 oz bottle

240 calories

Orange Juice
the average high student will drink the equivalent of 4 cans of pop in a day
Can of pop = 150 calories

x 4 cans a day

600 additional calories

x 7 days week

4,200 additional calories

The average high student will drink the equivalent of 4 cans of pop in a day
the average high student will drink the equivalent of 4 cans of pop in a day85
Can of pop = 150 calories

x 4 cans a day

600 additional calories

x 7 a week

4,200 additional calories

x 52 weeks in a year


The average high student will drink the equivalent of 4 cans of pop in a day
4 common high risk diagnoses

Diabetes (Type II)

High Blood Pressure


* A direct correlation to poor diet choices, genetics and environment.

Early 90’s patterns of risk factors in children started rising upward.

4 Common high-risk diagnoses
BMI > 85 to 95 percentile (Adult 25 to 30)

Begins commonly at 5 – 6 years old

Studies show a children who is obese between the ages 10 to 13 has a 80 % chance of being an obese adult

16 to 33 % children are obese in the US

2/3 of adults in the US

Obesity is one of the medical conditions that is easy diagnose but difficult to treat

$100 billion annually

Was the disease of 50 to 60 years old, NOW effects kids as years as 6.

Hispanic & African-Americans 2:1

1:3 in the US born in 2000 are at risk

5.9 million unaware

1990 to 1998 - 33% increase

high blood pressure
58 million, 6 and older, or 1 in 5

1/3 are unaware

120/80 is normal for teens & adults

Diagnosis is tricky, no outward symptoms. Three reading to make a average base line reading for a child.

High Blood Pressure
  • Related to food choices, lifestyle, physical inactivity, genetics, and obesity
  • Lead to heart disease
  • HDL levels >/= 35
  • Triglycerides >/= 150
tips to eating out
Tips to eating out
  • Pass on the bread or tortilla chips
  • Hold the cheese and mayo, 100 calories
  • Ask for ½ of the entrée to be boxed to go prior to serving
  • Salad dressing on side, dip each bite
  • Ask for foods to be cooked with less fat
  • Choose meats that are grilled, baked or broiled
  • Avoid cheese or cream sauces
  • Share
tips for fast food
Tips for Fast Food
  • Order a kid’s meal
  • Grilled sandwich
  • Skip the cheese and mayo
  • Skip the fries, add fruit or salad
  • Avoid regular soda, fruit punch or lemonade
  • Use salad dressing sparingly – the big packets of dressing is almost 3 servings compared to a bottle used at home
improving physical activity
Improving Physical Activity
  • 1 in 3 do not participate n a regular vigorous activity
  • Regular participate drops from 73 % of freshman to 61 % of seniors.
  • ½ not enrolled in PE, 29 % attend daily PE
  • Contributed to the 100 % increase in childhood obesity since 1980
evaluating nutrition information
Evaluating Nutrition Information
  • Who said it?
  • Motivation for the individual giving the information
  • What is said?
sources of reliable nutrition education
Sources of Reliable Nutrition Education
  • Reputable Scientific Journals
  • Reputable Scientific Organizations
  • Research/Public Information Agencies
  • Government Agencies
  • Registered Dieticians
  • People with advanced degrees in HUMAN NUTRITION from a reputable university
serving size quiz
Serving Size Quiz

What does a serving size look like?

quiz what makes a serving
QUIZ: What Makes a Serving?

 A huge bag of Ruffles is helping you get through your science homework. You polish off about ½ a bag or 50 chips. How many servings of chips have you just eaten?

  • 1
  • 2 1/2
  • 5
the answer c
The Answer: C
  • An official serving of Ruffles is one ounce, which is about 10 chips. Half a bag is 5 servings.
quiz what makes a serving106
QUIZ: What Makes a Serving?
  • One serving of steak is about as big as:
  • A deck of cards
  • A Howie Day CD

with case

c.A paperback book

the answer a
The Answer: A
  • An official serving of steak is three ounces or about as big as a deck of cards. A typical slab you would get at a steak house would be five times that size.
quiz what makes a serving108
QUIZ: What Makes a Serving?
  • According to the label on a package of Oreos, one serving has 100 calories and five grams of fat. How many cookies are

in a serving?

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
the answer b
The Answer: B
  • An official serving of Oreos is 2 cookies. But who can stop at just 2?
quiz what makes a serving110
QUIZ: What Makes a Serving?
  • The label on your favorite brand of ultrasinful ice cream says that one serving has a killer 300 calories and 15 grams of fat. How many scoops are in one serving?
  • 3
  • 2
  • 1
answer c
Answer: C
  • One official serving is one scoop, just ½ a cup.
quiz what makes a serving112
QUIZ: What Makes a Serving?
  • One “official” serving of french fries contains 3 ounces. How many servings are in a McDonald’s Super Size french fries?
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
answer c113
Answer: C
  • A Super Size order of french fries contains three official servings, adding up to 540 calories.
quiz what makes a serving114
QUIZ: What Makes a Serving?
  • A 7-Eleven Double Gulp contains how many servings of soda?
  • 2
  • 4
  • 8
answer c115
Answer: C
  • A Double Gulp has eight servings, more than enough to quench the thirst of a large family. A can of soda contains 1 ½ servings.