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The New Imperialism 1869-1914. Ch. 27. New Imperialism . Imperial powers used economic and technological means to reorganize dependent regions, bring them into world economy. Africa- done by conquest and colonial administration Latin America- done by indirect means. Motives. Political-

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new imperialism
New Imperialism
  • Imperial powers used economic and technological means to reorganize dependent regions, bring them into world economy.
  • Africa- done by conquest and colonial administration
  • Latin America- done by indirect means
  • Political-
    • desire to gain national prestige
    • Acquisition of new colonial possessions/ colonial agents often sent troops first and informed home govts. later.
  • Cultural-
    • Exporting Western “Civilization” through Christian missionary activity.
    • Imperialism gained popularity, racism, young men- opportunities for adventure and glory
  • Economic-
    • Industrialization of Europe and North America- stimulated a demand for minerals, industrial crops, and stimulants (sugar, coffee, tea, and tobacco)
    • Entrepreneurs/investors looked to profit- mines, plantations, railroads in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
    • Minimized risk by seeking diplomatic and military support from their gov’t.
tools of imperialists
Tools of Imperialists
  • Industrial revolution made “imperialism” possible
  • Steamships and the Suez Canal gave Europeans greater mobility and better communication.
  • Quinine-prevent malaria
  • Invention of breechloader, smokeless gunpowder, machine gun widened firearms gap
colonial agents administration
Colonial Agents & Administration
  • Colonists applied modern scientific and industrial methods to their colonies that started to transform African and Asian societies.
  • Some colonies retained traditional gov’t. some were administered directly.
  • Cooperation of indigenous elite
    • Traditional rulers
    • Youth trained for “modern” jobs
  • Women arrive, more racial segregation.
  • Egyptian khedives- expensive modernization projects
    • Financed with high-interest loans form European creditors
  • 1882- British sent army into Egypt, established a system of indirect rule to protect loan investments
  • British worked to modernize Egypt
    • Dam across the Nile- help agriculture/cotton
    • Benefited only small elite
    • Accompanied by Western ways conflicted with Islam
western and equatorial africa
Western and Equatorial Africa
  • West Africa- French built railroad from upper Senegal River- upper Niger
    • Open interior to French merchants.
  • France claimed northern bank
  • Belgium- claimed area south of Congo River
western and equatorial africa1
Western and Equatorial Africa
  • Berlin Conference on Africa- 1885 & 1886
    • Lay out framework for how Africa would be divided up
    • Occupation of Africa took many years, met with much resistance
  • West Africa, new colonial power developed existing trade networks.
  • Equatorial Africa
    • Little inhabitants or trade
    • Concessions to private companies that forced Africans to produce cash crops and carry them to nearest river or railroad.
southern africa
Southern Africa
  • Good pastures, farmlands, and mineral wealth
    • Discovery of diamonds in 1868
    • Led to the defeat of the Xhosa and the Zulu
  • 1910- European settler created the Union of South Africa
    • Afrikaaners emerged as ruling element in a gov’t that assigned Africans to reservations, established a system of racial segregation.
political and social consequences
Political and Social Consequences
  • Mixed feelings about European invasion by natives
    • Some fought (Zulu, Ndebele)
    • Ethiopia successfully defended itself against the British-1896
  • Most tried to live as before, difficult due to colonial policies
    • Imposition of taxes on Africans forced them into low-paying jobs.
  • Women’s property rights undermined
    • Given to the head of house (a.k.a. the man)
cultural responses
Cultural Responses
  • Missionaries taught practical skills (crafts and domestic skills) and western ideas
  • Mission educated Africans started to critique colonialism
  • Colonialism contributed to diffusion of Islam by
    • Building cities
    • Increasing trade
    • Allowing Muslims to settle in new areas