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D1.HGE.CL7.02 D1.HGA.CL6.04. GATHER AND PRESENT PRODUCT INFORMATION. Subject Elements. This unit comprises three Elements: Gather and organise information Research and analyse information Present information. Assessment. Assessment for this unit may include: Oral questions

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subject elements
Subject Elements

This unit comprises three Elements:

  • Gather and organise information
  • Research and analyse information
  • Present information

Assessment for this unit may include:

  • Oral questions
  • Written questions
  • Work projects
  • Workplace observation of practical skills
  • Practical exercises
  • Formal report from supervisor
Element 1
  • Gather and organise information
gather and organise information
Gather and organise information

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Gather and organise information in a format suitable for analysis, interpretation and dissemination in accordance with organisational requirements and relevant legislation codes and standards
  • Access and assess information held by the organisation for accuracy and relevance in line with established organisational requirements
gather and organise information1
Gather and organise information

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Ensure methods of collecting information are reliable and make efficient use of resources in accordance with organisational requirements
  • Use business technology to access, organise and monitor information in accordance with organisational requirements
  • Update, modify, maintain and store information in accordance with organisational requirements
importance of information
Importance of information

The hospitality and tourism industry is one of the largest industries in the world and for many countries is its major economy and employer.

Industry knowledge is a vital pre-requisite for effective performance within the industry.

importance of information1
Importance of information

For all businesses within the hospitality and tourism industry, it is important to have up-to-date information so you can:

  • Talk to customers about industry-specific events, trends and happenings
  • Plan your career as opportunities present themselves
  • Know when you need to update your training
  • Cultivate and maintain a professionalinterest in what is truly a profession
importance of information2
Importance of information
  • Communicate effectively with colleagues and management who have themselves kept up-to-date
  • Learn new techniques
  • Develop a broader appreciation of what the industry is all about
  • Understand who the key players are, and how they operate
types of industry information
Types of industry information

Main categories of information

The two main categories of information that all staff should know relate to:

  • The Tourism and Hospitality Industry
  • Their specific role
tourism and hospitality industry sectors
Tourism and Hospitality industry sectors


This sector includes but is not limited to:

  • Hotels and motels
  • Guest houses and bed and breakfasts
  • Caravan parks and camping grounds
  • Resorts and time share properties
  • Apartments, villas and cottages
  • Conference and exhibition centres
tourism and hospitality industry sectors1
Tourism and Hospitality industry sectors

Attractions and theme parks

This sector includes but not limited to:

  • Museums and galleries
  • National parks, wildlife parks and gardens
  • Theme parks
  • Heritage sites and centres
  • Sports activity centres
  • Aquariums and zoos
tourism and hospitality industry sectors2
Tourism and Hospitality industry sectors

Tour operators

  • A tour operator typically organises sightseeing tours and accommodation in a particular destination or region

Inbound tour wholesaler

  • An inbound tour wholesaler packages products to form a trip for an overseas market travelling to your country
tourism and hospitality industry sectors3
Tourism and Hospitality industry sectors

Outbound tour wholesaler

  • An outbound tour wholesaler negotiates product from International Suppliers for clients in your country travelling to an international destination

Retail travel agents

  • A retail travel agent is the go-between between the client and the wholesaler
tourism and hospitality industry sectors4
Tourism and Hospitality industry sectors

Local, regional and national information services

  • These information services exist to assist the public and travel agents in obtaining knowledge and information on a particular region from the experts

Meetings and events

  • These companies organise meetings, conferences and major events by booking flights, accommodation, tours and the meeting facilities
tourism and hospitality industry sectors5
Tourism and Hospitality industry sectors

Corporate agents

  • This sector tenders for travel accounts from large, medium and small sized businesses


  • Airlines own the planes and sell seats to all sectors in the travel industry
information relating to job roles
Information relating to job roles

Not only is it important for all persons working in the industry to understand their industry and sector within it, but also to collect information that relates to their specific job roles.

information relating to job roles1
Information relating to job roles

Career prospects

This includes being able to have a clear understanding of:

  • Your development path within the industry
  • Your next career step including need for:
    • training
    • experience
    • qualifications
information relating to job roles2
Information relating to job roles

Employment obligations and entitlements

You can obtain information regarding your employment obligations and entitlements from a combination of:

  • The employment instrument you are employed under
  • The job description for your role
  • The job specification for your position
  • Talking to your employer about theirexpectations of your work
information relating to job roles3
Information relating to job roles

Product Knowledge

Product knowledge embodies knowledge about:

  • Products sold
  • Services provided
  • Facilities available
  • Operating procedures and conditionsof the business
information relating to job roles4
Information relating to job roles

‘Quality assurance’ (QA)

This is a term used to systematically measure and compare aspects of operations within a business against operational standards of performance.

‘Total Quality Management’ (TQM)

This is a philosophy of management that is driven by customer needs and expectations to provide a process of excellence.

information relating to job roles5
Information relating to job roles

Other job related information

  • Union and employer concerns
  • Legislative and political changes
  • Service, product and facility initiatives
  • What else is important to know in relationto your job role?
sources of information
Sources of information

There are a number of sources that will be a great starting point to get an overview of the industry as a whole:

  • Colleagues, supervisors and managers
  • Representatives
  • Developing your own industry network
  • Conferences and seminars
  • Product launches
  • Asking someone to be your mentor
sources of information1
Sources of information

Information services

Most information services are fee-for-service providers. This means it costs money to use their services for:

  • E-newsletters
  • Fact Sheets
  • Updates
  • Guides
  • Information Sheets
  • Over-the-phone advice
sources of information2
Sources of information

Written materials

  • Trade magazines
  • Hotel school publications
  • Newsletters
  • Brochures
  • Advertisements
  • Reference books
sources of information3
Sources of information

Government and Industry bodies

The ASEAN region, whilst working collectively to achieve a primary purpose of attracting tourism to the region as a whole, each participating government will also have their own websites and departments in which to collect information.

government and industry bodies
Government and Industry bodies
  • A range of industry specific bodies have been established to cater to the needs of industry
  • What tourism industry bodies do you know of?
government and industry bodies1
Government and Industry bodies

Their goal is to ensure the tourism industry:

  • Provides a safe and secure offering to its customers
  • Is regulated and operates in a legal and compliant manner
  • Provides quality products and services to its customers
  • Employs staff who have the necessary knowledge, skill relevant to the current industry needs and expectations
government and industry bodies2
Government and Industry bodies

Ministries of Tourism

The Ministry may co-ordinate special initiatives including:

  • Selecting and managing heritage sites
  • Dedication and allocation of government funding to tourism initiatives
  • Providing information on news laws and regulations
  • Establishing service excellence awards
  • Publishing and managing tenders for tourism projects
government and industry bodies3
Government and Industry bodies

Tourism Boards

The primary task of tourism boards is to coordinate the efforts of hotels, airlines and travel agents to develop the fledging tourism industry of the country.

Industry Authorities

Authorities are established, either by a government or working closely with government to provide services relating to the tourism industry.

government and industry bodies4
Government and Industry bodies

Industry Associations

These bodies provide businesses with a variety of services which can include:

  • Representing the industry
  • Legal advice
  • Training
  • Industry standards and benchmarks
  • Cost savings
government and industry bodies5
Government and Industry bodies

Industry Unions

In the same way that industry associations represent the interests of business, the unions represent the interests of employees.

obtaining information
Obtaining information
  • The key to obtaining information is for you to be proactive. It is highly unlikely most information will seek you out, so you have to go and find it
  • Obtaining the information you need is a matter of applying yourself to the sources identified
obtaining information1
Obtaining information
  • Subscribing to, and reading, industry magazines, newsletters, updates
  • Picking and reading through the local and city newspapers
  • Getting on Internet e-mail lists
  • Receiving newsletters and updates
  • Joining your local union or industry association to receive regular material
  • Reading books on the industry sector that you are working in
obtaining information2
Obtaining information

Getting out and having a look around to see:

  • What’s happening
  • What people are doing
  • What the competition is doing
  • What people are doing and saying
obtaining information3
Obtaining information

Keys when gathering information:

  • Display a friendly attitude towards people
  • Use an appropriate tone of voice and volume
  • Ask clear and concise questions.
monitoring current issues
Monitoring current issues

It is important to note though, the collection of information is most powerful when used to gain an understanding of current issues that are important to the success of the operation:

  • What are current issues of importance?
  • Why are they important?
  • How can you monitor them?
monitoring current issues1
Monitoring current issues

In order to keep up-to-date with industry issues impacting within your workplace:

  • Conduct constant internet research
  • Attend all meetings and discuss relevant issues
  • Monitor the media
  • Read about it in the journals and on-line subscriptions detailed in this manual
  • Talk to supervisors and management
  • Talk to customers
tourism industry statistics and trends
Tourism industry statistics and trends

Given the tourism and hospitality industry is one of the largest industries in the world, it is not surprising to learn that they are numerous sources devoted to industry news, trends and statistics.

types of industry statistics and trends
Types of industry statistics and trends

Industry Statistics

Industry statistics are popular amongst both employees within the tourism industry and also end consumers.

Statistics prove a ‘snapshot’ of important information which can be examined and applied to:

  • Improve business operations
  • Attract new markets
  • Build confidence in the eyes of a consumer
types of industry statistics and trends1
Types of industry statistics and trends

Industry Statistics

  • Types of tourism businesses
  • Types and demographics of customers
  • Top destinations
  • Hotel occupancy percentages
  • Reasons for stays
  • Current industry information
  • Destination countries
types of industry statistics and trends2
Types of industry statistics and trends

Industry Statistics

  • Departure months
  • Length of stay
  • Type of organisation for the trip
  • Transport mode
  • Accommodation type
  • Expenditure
  • Popular tourist attractions
types of industry statistics and trends3
Types of industry statistics and trends

Industry Trends

Understanding of current industry trends helps operators within the tourism and hospitality industry gain an understanding of what may take in the future.

This helps to determine strategy and develop a competitive advantage over competitors.

types of industry statistics and trends4
Types of industry statistics and trends

Industry Trends

  • Great comparison-shopping by consumers
  • Tourism related applications ‘apps’
  • Women-only floors
  • Budget lodging at private accommodation
  • Unusual one-off experiences and mini-vacations
  • App creators breaking through language barriers
types of industry statistics and trends5
Types of industry statistics and trends

Industry Trends

  • Websites offering personalized activities and tours
  • Using smart-phones as room keys
  • Booking agents to overlay the social graph, asking users to sign in with their social media accounts for the opportunity to hand-pick desirable seating arrangements
  • VIP treatment at amusement parks
operational information
Operational Information
  • Most tourism and hospitality organisations will collect information on a daily basis, from a variety of sources
  • This information aims to provide managers with vital information relating to operations
  • It also helps staff in determining possible work demands or requirements
operational information1
Operational Information

Some of this information may relate to:

  • Current operations
  • Projected operations
  • Past operational performance
operational information2
Operational Information

The collection of information is helpful when:

  • Providing destination and specific product information and advice
  • Providing specific information and advice about the credentials of an operator
  • Selling products and services to the customer
  • Preparing quotations
  • Booking and coordinating a supplier service for the customer
operational information3
Operational Information

The collection of information is helpful when:

  • Receiving and processing a reservation from a customer
  • Processing financial transactions
  • Issuing customer travel documentation
  • Issuing crew documentation or technical itineraries
  • Organising functions
operational information4
Operational Information

The collection of information is helpful when:

  • Processing and monitoring meeting or event registrations
  • Purchasing promotional products
  • Hiring special equipment
operational information5
Operational Information

Types of information

Specific informational details in relation to products may include:

  • Costs, tariffs and rates
  • Additional taxes and levies imposed
  • Currency applied to the cost
  • Terms, conditions and rules
  • Scheduling information
operational information6
Operational Information

Types of information

  • Product codes
  • Booking procedures
  • Point of departure
  • Route taken
  • Point of conclusion or disembarkation
operational information7
Operational Information

Types of information

  • Touring inclusions and exclusions
  • Technical specifications for audiovisual and other meetings and events equipment
  • Specifications for products to be branded with corporate details
collecting operational information
Collecting Operational Information

There are a number of ways to collect information relating to operational effectiveness including:

  • Reports
  • Obtaining customer feedback
  • Using a pretend customer
  • Walking about the premises and observing
  • Use of checklists
  • Brainstorming sessions
  • Staff input and review
customer information
Customer Information

Understanding customers and their preferences is a very important aspect of a business.

Therefore being able to collect information is very important to understand:

  • What your business is doing well to meet their needs
  • Identify where improvements can be made
customer information1
Customer Information

Formal feedback

  • Customer comment cards
  • General Manager cocktail parties
  • Interviews and follow up calls
  • Meetings
  • Performance reviews
customer information2
Customer Information

Informal feedback

This information may come in the form of ‘gossip’ or ‘through the grapevine’, however is the provider of the largest amount of feedback.

This includes:

  • General discussion
  • Observations
labour issues
Labour issues
  • Pay rates
  • The ability to recruit sufficient and properly trained or experienced staff
  • Working conditions
  • Training
  • Mandatory licensing and certification requirements
  • Superannuation and Insurance
  • Disciplinary and dismissal procedures
government initiatives
Government initiatives
  • Creating advertising campaigns to promote certain locations or industry sectors
  • Funding training initiatives in certain trades or roles
  • Encouraging overseas workers
  • Amending or introducing legislation
  • Introducing changes to Industrial Relations legislation
  • Specific government initiatives
emerging markets
Emerging markets
  • Spa resorts and the emergence of the well-being industry
  • Fast food
  • Recognition of ‘grey power’ and their potential for spending
  • Increase in the growth of ‘action’ holidays
  • Emphasis on domestic travel as opposed to internal travel
environmental and social concerns
Environmental and social concerns
  • Waste management, recycling of materials and a reduction in energy and resource consumption
  • Noise and air quality
  • Sustainable tourism activities
  • Respect for indigenous lands and cultures
  • Responsible advertising of hospitality products and services
environmental and social concerns1
Environmental and social concerns
  • Complying with legislated service requirements (alcohol, gaming, tobacco) to minors
  • Social awareness towards alcohol and gaming problems
  • Ensure discrimination in the provision of hospitality services does not occur
  • Accommodating local concerns into the standard operating procedures
  • Changes or requirements to planning requirements
industry expansion or retraction
Industry expansion or retraction
  • The business remains in the sector it currently occupies
  • Set new directions, new target markets and revised goals
  • To quit the industry and move into a new industry
  • To invest in additional buildings, plant, stock
  • To recruit new staff or to begin staff reductions
  • To alter the focus of their training programs
  • To change promotional campaigns
  • To vary its products and services
  • To vary prices
legal compliance information
Legal compliance information

The importance of complying with legal requirements cannot be strongly emphasised.

Failure to meet legally imposed obligations can result in fines (to you and the business) as well as a whole range of penalties including closure of the business.

legal compliance information1
Legal compliance information


Laws are a set of principles, rules and standards established by parliament and enforced by the courts for the regulation of behaviour in society and the protection of members of society and their property:

  • What laws affect you in the workplace?
legal compliance information2
Legal compliance information

Consumer protection issues

These traditionally address increasing the responsibility on business to protect the interests of the consumer from unconscionable activities and illegal action:

  • How can you ‘protect’ the consumer?
legal compliance information3
Legal compliance information

Duty of care

This common law requirement reinforces the responsibility that all employers and businesses have to provide a safe workplace and to take appropriate care and action to make sure that staff, customers and members of the public are not injured while at the place of business.

  • How can you make the workplace safe?
legal compliance information4
Legal compliance information

Equal employment opportunity

EEO legislation ensures people are not victimised or discriminated against of their age, gender, race, disability or sexual preference in the areas of:

  • Employment
  • Provision of products and services
  • What EEO practices can you introduce?
legal compliance information5
Legal compliance information

Workplace relations

Existing HR legislation, systems, structures, terms and conditions of employment and instruments of employment are subject to amendment or repeal through the efforts of the government, employer bodies or unions.

  • What are examples of workplace relations?
legal compliance information6
Legal compliance information


Obligation on employees not to release confidential information about their customers without their express consent including:

  • Name
  • Address
  • Phone number
  • Buying habits
  • Marital status
  • Methods of payment
  • Purchases
legal compliance information7
Legal compliance information

Finding information on legal requirements

You understand the legal requirements of your position and how to conduct your duties in a legal manner.

Update understanding of legal issues by:

  • Asking Human Resources
  • Asking Management
  • Research internet
emerging technological trends
Emerging technological trends
  • The hospitality and tourism industry is all about connections
  • Connecting people, places and cultures
  • Using new technologies, social media, and social networks can help to foster the connections that we share
emerging technological trends1
Emerging technological trends
  • Technology greatly impacts on all aspects of operations
  • The improvements in technology have been immensely beneficial for the industry
  • It has made the world a smaller place and made it easier for businesses to get in touch with customers
emerging technological trends2
Emerging technological trends

The main ways technology can enhance the industry are:

  • Streamline and speed up access and delivery of services
  • Improve management and profitability of operations
  • Enhance marketing of the industry as a whole and the businesses within it
  • Improve the relationships between businesses and its customers
emerging technological trends3
Emerging technological trends

Examples of trends

  • Standardized set of XML messages for the distribution of tour and activity data
  • Short-term, purely spontaneous travel specials
  • Dedicated travel apps
  • Sharing of traveller’s personal informationto simplify bookings
emerging technological trends4
Emerging technological trends

Examples of trends

  • Advanced travel search engines
  • Travellers to find activities and local content in a mobile optimized environment
  • Small business owners to access the business travel market
  • Hotels and resorts to communicate with guest through on property mobile before, during, and after their visit to the property
emerging technological trends5
Emerging technological trends

Examples of trends

  • Hotels manage their online reputation and social media
  • Friends to collaborate and plan trips together 
  • Travellers research and decide where to go, where to stay and what to do
local community information
Local community information

Ways in which an organisation can benefit the community includes:

  • Employing staff from the community
  • Using local suppliers
  • Investing in the local community through a range of programs
  • Recommending community businesses
local community information1
Local community information

To be able to recommend community businesses, staff should have a thorough understanding of:

  • Local attractions
  • Shopping and retail areas
  • Events and festivals
  • Eateries
  • Supermarkets
  • Local transport
  • Activities
  • Places of worship
local community information2
Local community information

The best ways to gather community information includes:

  • Visiting local businesses and finding out what they provide
  • Talking to management and staff
  • Collecting and reading brochures
  • Keeping up with local media
  • Visiting the local Tourist Information Centre
  • Attending town meetings
  • Looking at notice boards in shopping centres
collection of effective information
Collection of effective information

To date we have explored different types and sources of information that are essential to enable staff and management of an organisation operate in a successful manner.

It is important that the information that is collected is:

  • Accurate
  • Suited to the needs of their organisation
data and information
Data and Information
  • Whilst the word ‘information’ has been used to date, in effect this is the collective term for ‘data’ that has been collected
  • Data is a piece of information that can be collected and interpreted by an organisation for their use
  • What types of data are there?
types of data
Types of data

The two most common sources of data are:

  • Primary data – collected for a specific purpose
  • Secondary data – generic information
primary data
Primary data
  • Primary research data is newly generated research information that you yourself or the organisation create
  • The need for primary research data commonly arises because of gaps in the information available through the secondary research data
primary data1
Primary data

The most common forms of primary market research for tourism businesses include:

  • Customer surveys
  • In-house questionnaires and feedback sheets
  • Focus groups
  • Electronic responses on the website
  • Observation
primary data2
Primary data

Primary data

Primary data is considered to be either:

  • Qualitative research
  • Quantitative research
primary data3
Primary data

Qualitative research

  • Qualitative research does not look at numbers
  • It tries to find out the reasoning behind certain actions, procedures, activities or ways of thought.
  • It explores reasoning
primary data4
Primary data

Qualitative research


  • It provides richness and depth of information
  • It provides interactive and snowball brainstorming
  • Invites expression of opinions
  • Uses open-ended questions designed to stimulate thinking
  • Can be conducted quickly
primary data5
Primary data

Qualitative research


  • It does not provide a sample of people that is representative of a target population
  • Results are open to subjective interpretation
  • Moderator could bias results by steering group in a set direction
  • Dominant group member could sway or outweigh opinions of other group participants
primary data6
Primary data

Quantitative research

  • Based on structured, closed-ended questionnaires
  • Aims to gather responses that can be summarised in numbers
  • Summarise the information quantitatively or numerically by percentages, frequencies and averages
  • Samples can be larger
  • More representative and statistical techniques can be used to draw conclusions
primary data7
Primary data

Quantitative research

The main types of quantitative research are:

  • Mail survey
  • Telephone survey
  • Face-to-face interview
  • Combination of mail/telephone surveys
  • Observation
primary data8
Primary data

Quantitative research


  • The objectivity of the results
  • Sample can be representative of target population
  • Simply structured answers
  • Interviewer bias is not such a problem
  • More cost effective
  • Can measure consumer attitudes, behaviour and trends over time
primary data9
Primary data

Quantitative research


  • Sampling difficulties
  • Problems with interpretation of reliability and validity
  • Well designed research requires a basic understanding of statistical techniques
  • Deriving accurate results depends upon meaningful questionnaire design
primary data10
Primary data

Qualitative & Quantitative research

Customer Evaluation Forms

Customer evaluation forms are a perfect example of where these two types of research are used:

  • Quantitative – Where customers are asked to rate an aspect of the operations between 1 – 5
  • Qualitative – Where the customer is asked to give comments or explanations
secondary data
Secondary data

Secondary data

  • Using information that already exists
  • A business can generate secondary research data from its sales figures, databases from other sources
  • Should be used before primary research is undertaken
secondary data1
Secondary data

Main types of secondary data

  • Business and industry-specific journals and periodicals
  • Trade, professional and business associations
  • Government statistics
  • Libraries
  • Internet
  • Government websites
  • Private market research firms
  • Newspapers and magazines
using business technology
Using business technology
  • All organisations use technology to access, organise and monitor information that is relevant to the operations
  • There is a wide selection of information that can be collected for a variety of purposes
using business technology1
Using business technology

Information systems

An information system is a way for managers to:

  • Assess information needs
  • Develop information from existing operations, an internal audit or current situation analysis, external audit and the market research process
  • Distribute information accurately to the right person in the right place at the right time
using business technology2
Using business technology

Information systems


The most efficient way that information software systems can help managers is through the collation of data into useful reports:

  • What reports can be produced?
using business technology3
Using business technology

Point of sale systems

Different outlets will use separate equipment to handle transactions specific to their needs including:

  • Cash registers
  • Point-of-sale (POS) terminals
using business technology4
Using business technology

Cash registers

A cash register is a machine that is used to accurately record transactions including:

  • Charges
  • Methods of payments
  • Issue of accounts and receipts
  • Store of cash and non-cash payments
cash registers
Cash registers

X and Z Readings

Cash registers are the most common equipment used in recording sales.

A summary of takings is obtained through the use of:

  • ‘X’ reading
  • ‘Z’ Reading
cash registers1
Cash registers

X Reading

  • An ‘X’ reading provides an updated reading/report on all the financial transactions processed through the cash register/terminal during the shift or day
  • An ‘X’ reading can be taken at any stage during a shift to get an updated summary
cash registers2
Cash registers

Z Reading

  • A ‘Z’ reading provides a final report on all the financial transactions that have been processed through the register/terminal during the shift or day
  • A ‘Z’ reading is only done at the end of a shift of day
cash registers3
Cash registers

Additional information

More importantly these systems provide useful information in relation to the day’s trade including a breakdown of, but not limited to:

  • Amount of each item sold
  • Financial information including average spends
  • Sales taken by each staff member

The internet is a great source of information which allows users to gather endless amounts of valuable information without leaving the workplace:

  • Suppliers
  • Industry associations
  • Government bodies
  • Specific properties
updating information
Updating information

To keep learning, you must source the most recent and relevant information about what is happening in:

  • The industry in general
  • Your sector of interest
  • Your workplace department
  • Your job
updating information1
Updating information

You should seek to identify a wide range of issues such as:

  • Changing and emerging trends
  • New techniques and workplace practices
  • New equipment and technology
  • New recipes
  • Initiatives relating to advertising, marketing and promotion
  • Changes to legislation, regulations & codes of practice
  • Market research information
  • Trends
  • Activities that the opposition is undertaking
learning opportunities
Learning opportunities

Not only is the regular updating information beneficial to the organisation, it also helps develop your own understanding and level of knowledge:

  • What learning and development activities can you undertake?
learning opportunities1
Learning opportunities

Learning options

  • On-the-job
  • Staff meetings and briefings
  • Undertaking advanced formal studies
  • Participating in training courses and seminars
  • Keeping tuned in to TV, cable, electronic media and the Internet
  • Doing a relevant correspondence courses
learning opportunities2
Learning opportunities

Learning options

  • Subscribing to hospitality journals, newsletters and periodicals
  • Becoming a member of an industry association or union
  • Attending industry functions, product launches or promotions
  • Trying something new
  • Taking time to visit the opposition
using information
Using information

Using information to enhance performance

  • To advise customers of up-coming events, specials
  • To make recommendations and suggestions
  • To provide additional information
  • To demonstrate professionalism
  • To help make sales
using information1
Using information

Using information to enhance performance

  • To generate repeat business from customers
  • To generate referral business
  • To comply with general operational requirements
  • To entice the customer to increase expenditure
  • To answer routine questions
Element 2
  • Research and analyse information
research and analyse information
Research and analyse information

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Define objectives of research clearly and consistently with organisational requirements
  • Ensure data used in research is valid and relevant to research purposes
  • Ensure research strategies are appropriate to the requirements of the research and make efficient use of available resources
research and analyse information1
Research and analyse information

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Ensure methods of data analysis are reliable and suitable to research purposes
  • Ensure assumptions used in analyses are clear, justified and consistent with research objectives
  • Ensure conclusions are supported by evidence and contribute to the achievement of the organisation’s goals and objectives
focusing research
Focusing research
  • As can be seen there are many types of information that can be collected, using a wide array of sources, to address endless aspects of an operation
  • No person can keep abreast of all information. In addition, each organisation will have different informational needs and priorities
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Focusing research

Therefore instead of collecting information for the sake of it, there must be a specific purpose and focus on what should be researched:

  • What information is more important to collect than other?
assessing information needs
Assessing information needs

The following questions can be of assistance when assessing information research needs:

  • What types of decisions are you regularly called on to make?
  • What types of information do you need to make these decisions?
  • What types of information do you regularly get?
  • What types of special studies do you periodically request?
  • What types of information would you like to get that you are not now getting?
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Assessing information needs
  • What information would you want daily? Weekly? Monthly? Yearly?
  • What magazines and trade reports would you like to see on a regular basis?
  • What specific topics would you like to be kept informed of?
  • What types of data analysis programs would you like to be kept informed of?
  • What do you think would be the four most helpful improvements that could be made to the present information system?
research process and plan
Research process and plan

A research process is a four step activity:

  • Define the research problem and objectives
  • Develop the research plan for collecting information
  • Implement the research plan by collecting and analysing the data
  • Interpret and report the findings
defining the research problem
Defining the research problem

Defining the research problem

The first step is to try to identify exactly where the focus of research and information collection should be concentrated on.

XYZ Hotel

For example, XYZ Hotel may examine whether undertaking a renovation to their accommodation rooms will lead to greater profits for the organisation as a whole.

determining specific research questions
Determining specific research questions

The research problem and research objectives must then be translated into specific research questions that address particular information needs:

  • What questions would you have if you were the XYZ Hotel?
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Determining specific research questions

XYZ Hotel

  • What do customers consider value when staying at a hotel?
  • Will upgrading our facilities keep current patrons?
  • Will upgrading our facilities attract new patrons?
  • What specific upgrades will add value to a hotel experience?
  • Will upgrading facilities lead to a competitive advantage over the completion in the area?
  • What extra revenue will the customers be willing to pay?
  • What are the potential costs of refurbishment?
  • What is the expected profitability of upgrading facilities?
define research objectives
Define research objectives

By using research questions as the basis, research objectives may identified:

  • What research objectives would you have if you were the XYZ Hotel?
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Define research objectives

XYZ Hotel

  • Identify components of value in the customer’s eyes
  • Identify needs of current customers
  • Identify what the competition is providing to customers
  • Identify products and facilities that can be upgraded
  • Identify potential costs of refurbishment, including loss of income during refurbishment
  • Identify timeline and steps associated with refurbishment
  • Identify expected profitability of upgrading facilities
developing the research plan
Developing the research plan
  • Once the objectives have been determined, it is now time to identify and develop the research plan
  • This is the framework in which trying to find the answers to the research questions and objectives are based
gathering secondary data
Gathering secondary data

XYZ Hotel:

  • Industry journals to identify current trends in hotels
  • Statistical information on the industry, its offerings and market segments
  • Discussions with industry bodies relating to projected activities and areas of concerns in the industry
  • Trade magazines and websites to identify range of products and facilities that can be upgraded
gathering primary data
Gathering primary data

XYZ Hotel:

  • Customer surveys to identify customers current satisfaction, needs and areas of value
  • Phone meetings with current and potential customers
  • Interviews with customers
  • Visiting equipment supplies
  • Visiting competitors
  • Getting a financial advisor to prepare financial forecasts
  • Getting contractors to prepare a renovation budget and timeline
implementing the research plan
Implementing the research plan

Implementing the plan involves collecting, processing, editing and analysing the data:

  • What considerations need to be taken into account when implementing the research activity?
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Implementing the research plan

It is important that all people associated with the research activity have an understanding of the exercise and what is expected of them including:

  • Objectives of the research project
  • Methods of data collection to use
  • Timeframes for collecting data
  • Budget associated with project
  • Communication of findings
monitor the research plan
Monitor the research plan

When monitoring the progress of the research plan some suggestions include:

  • Start small
  • Review research method on a regular basis
  • Understand the issues at hand
  • Be flexible in research methods
  • Focus on answering objectives
analysing information
Analysing information

Once data has been collected, it is now analysed for the purpose of shedding light on answering the research objectives.

Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modelling data with the goal of:

  • Highlighting useful information
  • Collecting evidence
  • Suggesting conclusions
  • Supporting decision making
analysing information1
Analysing information

Analysis of quantitative information

  • Make copies of your data
  • Tabulate the information, i.e., add up the number of ratings, rankings, yes's, no's for each question
  • For ratings and rankings, consider computing a mean, or average, for each question
  • Consider conveying the range of answers
analysing information2
Analysing information

Analysis of "qualitative" information

  • Read through all the data
  • Organize comments into similar categories
  • Label the categories or themes
  • Attempt to identify patterns where people may have similar feelings or thoughts
interpret information
Interpret information

The aim of interpreting information is to review all the information collected with the hope of:

  • Providing a summary of key pieces of evidence
  • In which assumptions, conclusions and recommendations be based
  • The process is not to find reason or purpose in all the information collected, but to methodically compile and interpret evidence that is relevant
ensuring clear justified and consistent assumptions
Ensuring clear, justified and consistent assumptions

Whilst at some stage, the person who collects and interprets information will have to make some assumptions and then recommendations based on these, it is important that their assumptions are as valid and accurate as possible:

  • How can you do this?
ensuring clear justified and consistent assumptions1
Ensuring clear, justified and consistent assumptions
  • Trying not to box findings into a solution they think is correct, as opposed to what is seen as correct
  • Don’t draw general conclusions or assumptions based on only one or two findings
  • It is important to have supporting evidence from different sources
  • Try to be critical in making assumptions by trying to find holes or weaknesses in them
  • Discuss the findings with another person/s to see if assumptions are consistent
report the findings
Report the findings

Now that assumptions have been made in reference to the information collated and summarised, it is now time to prepare and record:

  • Findings
  • Conclusions
  • Recommendations
report the findings1
Report the findings

It is essential that:

  • Important findings relate to the original research problem and objectives
  • Any recommendations that are made should be based on factual evidence collected during the data collection process
  • The conclusions presented must be understandable to management and practical to the problem at hand
report the findings2
Report the findings

It is essential that:

  • The level and scope of content depends on to whom the report is intended including owners, management, employees, clients, customers, the public
  • Be sure to record the research plans and activities in a research plan which can be referenced when a similar research effort is needed in the future
Element 3
  • Present information
present information
Present information

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Present recommendations and issues in an appropriate format, style and structure using suitable business technology
  • Ensure structure and format of reports are clear and conform to organisational requirements
  • Report and distribute research findings in accordance with organisational requirements
  • Obtain feedback and comments on suitability and sufficiency of findings in accordance with organisational requirements
presenting findings and recommendations
Presenting findings and recommendations
  • Depending on the nature of the research activity, the findings may be presented in a wide variety of ways to suit the importance, formality and intended audience
  • Simple research activities may result in findings being emailed or may require a more formal approach
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Presenting findings and recommendations

Methods of presenting recommendations

Some ways to present information include:

  • Formal meetings
  • One-on-one or group discussions
  • Staff briefings
  • E-mail
  • Prepare notices for distribution on walls
  • Written reports
  • Training sessions
preparing the research report
Preparing the research report

Where a formal report is required, either to supplement a verbal meeting or to provide structured and documented evidence, it is important that it is prepared in a manner that is:

  • Easy to read by a wide base of potential audiences
  • In a logical and concise manner
preparing the research report1
Preparing the research report

It is important that the research report is documented in a manner that provides an accurate snapshot of the:

  • Purpose of the research activity
  • Research objectives
  • Research activities
  • Evidence collected
  • Recommendations and conclusions
preparing the research report2
Preparing the research report

Contents of a Research Report

  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Executive Summary
  • Purpose of the Report
  • Background Information
presenting the research report
Presenting the research report
  • Once the appropriate method of presenting recommendations has been decided, it is now time to prepare and present the recommendations
  • This planning is just as important as the actual research activity itself
preparing for the presentation
Preparing for the presentation
  • Step 1 – Obtain the necessary information for the presentation
  • Step 2 – Work out the structure of the actual presentation
  • Step 3 – Arrange all required information in the required sequence
  • Step 4 – Identify the key points that need to be made in the presentation
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Preparing for the presentation
  • Step 5 – Write a draft presentation (script)
  • Step 6 – Practise the draft presentation
  • Step 7 – Develop the necessary presentation aids and materials
  • Step 8 – Rehearse the total presentation
preparing for the presentation2
Preparing for the presentation

Step 1 – Obtain the necessary information for the presentation

Classify material that you have captured into the three traditional categories of:

  • Must present, must know
  • Could present, could know
  • Nice to present, nice to know

The focus of the delivery has to be on the ‘must present’ information.

preparing for the presentation3
Preparing for the presentation

Step 2 – Work out the structure of the actual presentation

The traditional structure of a presentation will generally consist of three parts:

  • An introduction to the presentation
  • The main body of the presentation
  • Summary
  • Question and Answers
preparing for the presentation4
Preparing for the presentation


  • Let the audience know what the presentation is going to be about
  • Acknowledge and make reference to any information about the topic that the audience already has
  • Tell the audience what your objectives are
  • Give an overview of what you are going to present
  • Advise them of any participation you have organised for them
preparing for the presentation5
Preparing for the presentation

Main body

  • Keeping focussed on your identified objectives
  • Putting the information into context
  • Starting with the simple and moving to the more complex
  • Integrating A-V and presentation aids into the presentation
  • Ensuring a logical flow of information
  • Seeking clarity
  • Involving the audience
preparing for the presentation6
Preparing for the presentation


  • This section of the presentation should be quite brief, summarising the information that was contained in the main body
  • Only key points should be provided in the summary
  • Include a set of conclusions, or recommendations for future action
  • ‘Thank you’
preparing for the presentation7
Preparing for the presentation

Q & A sessions:

  • Encourage questions
  • Respond enthusiastically
  • Don’t get annoyed with one person who asks lots of questions
  • Provide concise and accurate answers
  • Acknowledge good and incisive questions
  • Never be afraid to admit when you don’t know the answer to a question
  • Thank participants for their questions
preparing for the presentation8
Preparing for the presentation

Step 3: Place the information in order

Ordering your information is a fairly logical process and can be best achieved if you follow these simple steps:

  • Write down a series of subheadings you wish to present in the main body
  • Arrange the subheadings into a logical order and then number them in a logical sequence
  • Use a numbering system
preparing for the presentation9
Preparing for the presentation

Step 4: Identify key points

The type of key points you select will depend upon the factors below:

  • The objectives you hope to achieve with your presentation
  • The type of presentation or occasion
  • The type of information you have access to
  • The characteristics of the audience
  • The depth and breadth of your knowledge and experience
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Preparing for the presentation

Step 5: Prepare a draft

  • Use headings in your notes
  • Keep in mind the objectives
  • Consider the audience characteristics
  • Use language that has a clear meaning
  • Present in an informative and interesting manner
  • Identify where to use visual aids
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Preparing for the presentation

Step 6: Practise your verbal presentation

You need to practise your verbal presentation by reading it out aloud to identify:

  • Information that does not flow smoothly
  • Areas too detailed or wordy
  • Sections that are not clear or concise
  • Information that is difficult to present verbally
  • Areas you just have difficulty with
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Preparing for the presentation

Step 7 – Develop the necessary presentation aids and materials

  • PowerPoint presentations
  • Diagrams, models and charts
  • Products, samples and models
  • Paper-based materials
  • DVDs, slides, overhead projection sheets
  • Whiteboards, flip charts, posters
  • Video or teleconferences
  • DVDs
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Preparing for the presentation

Step 8: Rehearse the entire presentation

You will need to practise:

  • Reading the information
  • Showing the visual materials while delivering the verbal presentation
  • Your stance
  • The speed and pace of presentation
  • Controlling your breathing
  • Integrating the roles of other presenters
preparing the audience in advance
Preparing the audience in advance
  • Once the appropriate method of presenting recommendations has been decided, it is now time to distribute findings to the intended audience
  • In many cases, it may be wise to distribute written reports to the audience in advance so they have a chance to carefully review and discuss the report
deliver the presentation
Deliver the presentation

Prior to the presentation

Before the actual presentation commences there are several things you should do to maximise both your chance of success and the effectiveness of the presentation:

  • Check who is attending
  • Review the presentation
  • Prepare the venue
  • Check your personal presentation
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Deliver the presentation

Making the presentation

Speech delivery:

  • Volume
  • Speed or pace of delivery
  • Tone, pitch and modulation
  • Pronunciation
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Deliver the presentation

Making the presentation

The message:

  • Your objectives are your message
  • The presentation needs to stay focussed on this
  • Attention should be paid to ensure that the information prepared is in fact the information presented
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Deliver the presentation

Making the presentation

Gestures and facial expressions:

  • Smiling is a positive facial expression that will make you look and feel relaxed
  • Try to adopt a stance that you feel comfortable with
  • Use your hands only when they are needed
  • Try to look relaxed
  • Try to use a range of different gestures and expressions
  • Avoid using nervous body movements but portray enthusiasm
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Deliver the presentation

Making the presentation

Eye contact:

  • Eye contact is an extremely important form of non-verbal communication
  • Try to remember that by maintaining eye contact, it is possible to personally include members of the audience into your presentation
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Deliver the presentation

Making the presentation

Using cue cards

Cue cards can be used in many ways, including:

  • To jog your memory
  • To remind you of difficult concepts or ideas
  • To ensure you remain focussed or on track
  • To provide you with an order in which key points are presented
  • To assist you with presenting factual information, such as figures or statistics
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Deliver the presentation

Making the presentation

Involving the audience

Involving the audience usually enhances the success of any presentation because adults generally prefer ‘active’ learning to ‘passive’ learning:

  • How can you involve the audience?
  • How can you involve quiet people?
obtain feedback
Obtain feedback

In the event that findings are presented in a meeting, it is important that the audience is able to provide feedback, suggestions or general comments:

  • What is feedback?
  • Why is getting feedback important?
  • What type of feedback can be given?
obtain feedback1
Obtain feedback

Feedback could come in the form of:

  • Providing general comments
  • Providing expert advice
  • Providing suggestion
  • Providing criticism
  • Providing acceptance and approval
  • Translate recommendations to action plans
handle questions
Handle Questions
  • There may be a number of questions in which the audience may want to ask
  • Presenters should see questions from audiences as a positive thing and not as an interruption or a distraction
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Handle Questions

Purpose of questions

  • Demonstrate the audience is interested and paying attention
  • Provide an extra opportunity for clarify information
  • Enable a check to be made on the level of understanding the audience has
  • Facilitate interaction with the audience
  • Help make a passive session into an active one
after the presentation
After the presentation
  • Whilst most questions may be clarified during the presentation, it is unlikely that all questions or actions required will be resolved
  • Where this occurs, you have to arrange to get the required information to them after the presentation has finished
after the presentation1
After the presentation

Follow up activities

  • Arranging a follow-up meeting or another presentation
  • Posting information on the website
  • Mailing hard copy information to individuals
after the presentation2
After the presentation

Follow up activities

  • Issuing a media release
  • Meeting with individuals after the presentation, in the venue, and discussing things there
  • Deciding follow up action resulting from the recommendations or conclusions in the research report