the great pyramid of giza also called the pyramid of khufu or the pyramid of cheops n.
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The Great Pyramid of Giza (also called the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops). Written by DOÄžAN SILAY - 2011. Translated by S. A. ÅžEHSUVAROÄžLU - 201 2. INTRODUCTION. The pyramids of Egypt are the only remaining members of the Seven Wonders of the World.

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the great pyramid of giza also called the pyramid of khufu or the pyramid of cheops

The Great Pyramid of Giza (also called the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops)

Written by DOĞAN SILAY - 2011

Translated by S. A. ŞEHSUVAROĞLU - 2012

introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • The pyramids of Egypt are the only remaining

members of the Seven

Wonders of the World.

  • Most important among

them are the pyramids of

Khufu, Khafre and

Menkaure situated at Giza,

near the city of Cairo.

the pyramids of giza
THE PYRAMIDS OF GIZA

KHAFRE

MENKAURE

KHUFU

background history 1
BACKGROUNDHISTORY- 1
  • According to Egyptian historians the Pyramid of Khufu or the Great Pyramid of Giza as it is also known, was built by Khufu, the second Pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty (Cheops in Greek) some 4,600 years ago.
  • Later on Khufu’s son Khafre (Chefren in Greek) built the second largest pyramid as well as the smaller of the three, called Menkaure (Mykerinos in Greek).
background history 2
BACKGROUNDHISTORY- 2
  • Although these two pyramids are magnificent, they cannot equal the workmanship and mystic of the Great Pyramid.
  • Based on carbon dating performed on the wood and charcoal bits found in the grout of the Pyramid of Khufu, the date of its construction was calculated as 3029 BC. And this takes us back 3029 + 2011 = 5040 years, which tells us the 4600 year age estimated by historiansis actually older by an additional 440 years.
purpose 1
PURPOSE- 1
  • Common belief is pharaohs built the pyramids as a monument/tomb for themselves. There is even a room called the “King’s Chamber” with a sarcophagus, located about the middle of the pyramid. Nevertheless, all the sarcophagi that have been opened until now were devoid of bodies.
purpose 2
PURPOSE- 2
  • Thus, what purpose did the largest stone structures ever built by men serve? No one has the answer to this.
  • Nevertheless, the Pyramid of Khufu is riddled with matters pertaining to sciences of Geography, Geometry and Astronomy.
  • And this is what we will now look into.
construction 1
CONSTRUCTION- 1
  • According to Greek historian Herodotus, the Pyramid of Khufu was built in 30 years by 100,000 slaves. The pyramid is composed of 2 million 300 hundred thousand stone blocks placed one on top of another.
  • Each block weighs on average 2.5 tons.
  • When the total weight is calculated, we realise we are facing a huge mass weighing 6 million tons.
  • There are 203 successive layers of stone blocks.
  • Historians estimate that it took 10 years to prepare and then another 20 years to place the 2.3 million blocks one on top of another.
construction 3 the author standing on a block provides an order of scale
CONSTRUCTION– 3(The author standing on a block provides an order of scale)
  • If we accept that slaves worked a 12 hour day and thus calculate:
  • (20 years × 365 days × 12 hrs × 60 mns) / 2,300,000 blocks = 2.28 blocks / mn
  • Meaning: Using the technology of that period, one 2.5 ton block is being placed in its proper place every ~ 2.5 minutes.
  • Hard to believe, isn’t it?
construction 4
CONSTRUCTION- 4
  • It has been established that the blocks were cut from a quarry near Aswan, located in upper Nile and were brought to Giza on sail boats.
  • It is estimated that the stone blocks were lifted with wooden cranes onto the Nile docks and were rolled on logs all the way up to the construction site.
  • As each layer was built, hundreds of wooden cranes and block & tackle were used to place the successive blocks.
construction 5
CONSTRUCTION- 5
  • Because the wheel wasn’t invented yet, no vehicles were used for the transport.
  • They constructed temporary ramps up the pyramid.
  • The façade that appears as a set of steps today, was then covered in soft, polished marble (Alabaster).
  • In time, these Alabaster tiles were ripped off by thieves and sold in the local markets.
  • There is still some alabaster left visible on top of the Pyramid of Khufu.
  • The tolerance between the adjacent sides of each marble tile touching each other was 0.2 millimetres.
construction 6
CONSTRUCTION- 6
  • Today even the most sophisticated marble cutting lathes cannot provide this close tolerance.
  • You should remember that in an age where iron and steel did not exist, only copper and bronze tools were used.
  • Napoleon's scientists have calculated that if all the stone blocks of Giza could have been used again, the entire land-border of France could be encircled by a wall 30 cm thick and 3.5 m tall.
khufu s dimensions
KHUFU’S DIMENSIONS
  • The Pyramid’s original height was 146.65 meters.
  • Earthquakes and other natural factors reduced Khufu’s height today to 137.46 meters.
  • Each side of the base measures 230.36 meters.
  • Thus, the construction foot-print is 53 thousand square meters.
  • Volume wise, it is 30 times larger than the Empire State Building in New York.
  • It is the oldest known building in the world.
  • When viewed from the front Khafre appears bigger than Khufu. In reality it is only because Khafre was built on higher ground.
khufu s secrets 1
KHUFU’S SECRETS- 1
  • The longitude crossing the Pyramid of Khufu is the longest longitude crossing a land mass.
  • Similarly, the latitude crossing the Pyramid of Khufu is the longest latitude crossing a land mass.
  • Khufu is located right on the centre of gravity of all the land masses.
  • There are exactly 3 billion construction sites of this size (53 thousand square metres) around the World.
  • In that case, how was this 3-billion-to-1 odds construction site chosen?
khufu s secrets 3
KHUFU’S SECRETS- 3
  • In 1600’s, the scientist Isaac Newton concluded he had to know the diameter of the earth in order to postulate the law of gravity.
  • Newton took off from the belief that Khufu held several secrets.
  • Newton used the “Pyramid Inch”* (PI), which is a little less than the British Inch (BI) as a base of measure and made several calculations. 1 metre = 39.64 PI or 1 metre = 39.37 BI.

*John Taylor (1781–1864) claimed the measurements indicated that the ancients had used a unit of measure about 1/1000 greater than a modern British inch. This was origin of the "pyramid inch". Taylor regarded the "pyramid inch" to be 1/25 of the "sacred cubit" whose existence had earlier been postulated by Isaac Newton.

khufu s secrets 4
KHUFU’S SECRETS- 4
  • The height of the Pyramid is 146.65 metre = 5,812.98 Pyramid Inch and the base is 230.36 metre = 9,131 Pyramid Inch.
  • Pyramid’s circumference = 4 × 230.26 = 921.44 m.
  • If this circumference is divided by twice the height ( 921.44 / 2 × 146.65 ) = 921.44 / 293.30 = 3.1416is obtained.
  • And that is the Pi number in mathematics.
  • Meaning that someone knew about the Pi number 5000 years before our time.
khufu s secrets 5
KHUFU’S SECRETS- 5
  • If we express the circumference of the Pyramid in Pyramid Inches: 4 × 9,131 = 36,524 is obtained.
  • If we increase this number, which at first appears to have no significance, by an order of magnitude, the resulting number is 365,24.
  • Today, we know that one solar year is equal to 365.24 days.
  • 5000 years ago someone measured the solar year exactly down to two significant figures!
khufu s secrets 6
KHUFU’S SECRETS- 6
  • Thanks to measurements taken by today’s modern satellites and using super computers, the average altitude above sea level of all land masses have been calculated. (For example: The Netherlands the lowest, Himalayasthe highest). This average altitude is 146 metre 65 centimetres.
  • Otherwise, the EXACT HEIGHT of Khufu.
  • If this height (146.65 metre) is multiplied by a billion, one obtains 146 million 650 thousand kilometres.
  • And that is the distance between the Sun and the Earth.
khufu s secrets 8
KHUFU’S SECRETS- 8
  • The four sides of Khufu are slightly arc shaped.
  • Measuring this shape using modern laser technology, it has been established that it is equal to Earth’s 230.36 metrearched surface.
  • In other words, the arc that is formed by the base of the pyramid, would perfectly fit into the arc formed by a circle drawn by taking the centre of the earth as its centre.
  • Which means the diameter of the earth was known 5000 years ago.
  • Exactly 3,183 kilometres!
khufu s secrets 9
KHUFU’S SECRETS- 9
  • Since Newton didn’t possess neither the technology nor the laser measurement instruments, he was incapable of calculating the Earth’s radius.
  • However, someone had done that calculation 5000 years ago.
khufu s secrets 11
KHUFU’S SECRETS- 11
  • Within this magnificent, 6 million ton,stone structure there are three principal sections:
    • 1. King’s Chamber
    • 2. Queen’s chamber
    • 3. The Grand Hall
  • Moreover, down in the earth, or more properly within the rock mass forming the base of the pyramid, lays the tomb (the pit).
  • The entrance to the pyramid is done through a cut doorway shown on the right of the image (next page).
  • Within the King’s and Queen’s Chambers are air shafts that open to the outside.
khufu s secrets 13
KHUFU’S SECRETS- 13
  • The two air shafts within the Queen’s Chambers are built with a 38 degree angle from the base.
  • The original pyramid entrance makes a 30 degree angle with the base and that side with the main entrance faces squarely the North.
  • Because the pyramid’s sides are 52 degrees, they also form a reverse pyramid, with the Queen’s Chamber marking the apex.
  • Because the pyramid is squarely on the 30th parallel, if one stands at 24:00 hours on 21st March and 22nd September (spring and fall equinoxes) towards the rear and centre of this hallwayand look out of the air shaft, one would see the North Star.
conclusions 1
CONCLUSIONS- 1
  • That this building whose construction would not have been possible even with today’s technology may hide many more secrets is certain and thus thousands of scientists toil everyday to unveil them.
  • As we all know there are several methods to map the spherical earth whose projection is reflected onto a flat surface.
  • One of the oldest known such maps is the one belonging to famous Turkish mariner Piri Reis.He took his leads from numerous sailors in many ports he visited and embellished those onto the map.
conclusions 2
CONCLUSIONS- 2
  • Piri Reis’ map is the result of a projection emanating from a single starting point.
  • Satellites that are placed in orbit generate thousands of maps of the earth by projecting them from various points in space.
  • One of those thousands of maps happens to be exactly the similar to that of Piri Reis’ map.
conclusions 3
CONCLUSIONS- 3
  • If we look at the Seven Wonders of the World:
    • Statue of Zeus on Mount Olympus (Greece)
    • Hanging Gardens of Babylon (Iraq)
    • Lighthouse of Alexandria (Egypt)
    • Statue of Apollo (Island of Rhodes)
    • Temple of Artemis (Ephesus)
    • Mausoleum at Halicarnassus(Bodrum)
    • Pyramid of Khufu (Egypt)
  • Of these seven wonders the only one managing to remain intact today is the Pyramid of Khufu.
conclusions 4
CONCLUSIONS- 4
  • It is believed that many more finds and discoveries will be made in and around this marvel, which will assist our rapidly developing civilization.
  • In his 1973 book called “The Chariots of the Gods” Erich von Daniken asserted that the Pyramid of Khufu was built by beings who came from another planet.
last words
LAST WORDS
  • This point is the centre of a map which appears if one is to observe the Earth from an altitude of 76 thousand metres.
  • And this centre is the EXACT MID-POINT of the Pyramid of Khufu…