Quality Wine Grapes in the San Joaquin Valley • Why? • History • A Global Market Place • Global Warming/Our Changing Climate • The Challenges of Warm Climate Viticulture
Quality Wine Grapes in the San Joaquin Valley • WHY?? • The world is flat and we are in a constant battle for shelf space! • Consumers are demanding more value for their dollar! • “Quality and the perception of value continue to be the key to survival, today, and success, tomorrow.” • Tony Correia- November 2007
What is Quality Synonyms:property, character, attribute • Definitiions: peculiar and essential character An inherent or distinguishing characteristic degree of excellence fit for purpose "Reducing the variation around the target"
Quality Wine Grapes in the San Joaquin Valley Definition of Warm Climate: >1650 GDD (oC) (~3000 oF) (Region III and above)
Something to keep in mind • Over 60% of grapes and wines of the world are produced in warm climate regions. • The evidence suggests that these regions will be shifting in the future.
Things to keep in mind • “Some of the warmest regions around the world are making some of the hottest wines….praised by critics and pursued by consumers” (Tim Patterson: Wines and Vines) • We need to apply existing knowledge to the production of the selected cultivars to achieve the desired (contracted) yield and quality criteria.
Warm Climate Viticulture: Choices • Target Market • Destination (taste preferences) • Price point • What will the demand be in the future? • Cultivar selection? • Management
Cultivars for the San Joaquin Valley? • Currently only 2% of the known cultivars are being used commercially (Approximately 260/14,000 cultivars) • I don’t think there is a single cultivar that we can not grow in the San Joaquin Valley. However, I think we can grow some better than others.
Tannat Touriga Teroldego Marzemina Tinta Barroca Trincadeira Carmenere Nero d’Avola Refosco Albarino Pinotage Souzao Negroamaro Dolcetto Some Potential Choices UCCE experiments (Jim Wolpert, Paul Verdegaal) Grower trials
Management ? • Rootstocks • Perhaps those that delay harvest (420A?, 41B) • Those that are more efficient water users (1103P, 110R) • Cultural practices (really need to know what the yield and quality goals need to be)! • Trellising • Nutrition • Irrigation • Canopy management • Crop load management • Vineyard floor management
Cultivars for the San Joaquin Valley? • The question is: Which cultivars should we grow in the San Joaquin Valley? • Changes are occurring or being contemplated in other regions of the world. • To answer this question we need to first answer several others first. • What is the market? • What quality characteristics are required? • Can we balance the supply-demand-price equation? • As growers we need a well defined objective and a contract that is economically sustainable.
The good news is: If we know in advance what the quality criteria are, I believe we can deliver the quality requested!