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Abbasid Decline and the Spread of Islamic Civilization to South and Southeast Asia Chapter 7. Sunnis & Shiites. Sunnis (Abu Bakr) Believed the caliph was primarily a leader and any devout Muslim could serve in the office with the acceptance of the people 90% of Muslims today
Abbasid Decline and theSpread of IslamicCivilization to South andSoutheast AsiaChapter 7
Sunnis & Shiites • Sunnis (Abu Bakr) • Believed the caliph was primarily a leader and any devout Muslim could serve in the office with the acceptance of the people • 90% of Muslims today are Sunnis. • Shiites (Ali) • Believed the caliph was primarily a religious authority and should be held only by the descendants of Muhammad. • 10% of Muslims today are Shiites (most are in Iran, Iraq, & Lebanon)
Imperial Extravagance • Decline of the Abassid Empire• Harun al-Rashid, becameone of the most famous Abbasidcaliphs.• The luxury and intrigues of his courtwere immortalized in The Thousand and• One Nights.• The young ruler became dependenton Persian advisors.
Imperial Breakdown • The continual civil violencedrained the imperial treasury.• Caliphs increased the strain byconstructing costly newimperial centers.• Peasants had imposing taxburdens.
The Crusades • • West European Christian knights in 1096 invaded Muslim territory to capture the biblicalHoly Land.• They established small, rival kingdoms .• Most were recaptured near the close of the 12th century by Muslims reunited under Saladin.• The last fell in 1291.
Islamic Achievements • Medicine = developed medicine as a field of study/ IbnSina wrote medical encyclopedia, Canon of Medicine, it showed how diseases could spread • History = IbnKhaldun proposed cyclical history, cause & effect, wrote Muqaddimah- Intro to History • Literature = Quran was main book/ Omar Khayyam wrote Rubaiyat/ Arabian Nights (1001 Nights) collection of folktales & fables that were first told orally & then written down over many years • Art/Architecture = blends together Arabic, Turkish, & Persian traditions
Islamic Achievements • Al-Ma’mun’sHouse of Wisdom = Baghdad, Arab scholars translated Greek works by Plato, Aristotle, etc./ Mathematics texts were included • Ibn-Rushd = scholar, wrote commentaries on Aristotle’s works • Math = created algebra & passed on India’s numbering system known as “Arabic” in Europe • Science = perfected astrolabe-used by sailors to determine location by looking at position of planets & stars/ observatory in Baghdad where scientists studied and named many stars