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Training on Inclusive Development. Charlotte McClain-Nhlapo Disability Advisor EAP World Bank 11/12 July 2006. Objectives of the WB. Poverty reduction & sustainable development. Priorities embodied in the MDG ’ s. Reaching the poorest of the poor.

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Training on inclusive development

Training on Inclusive Development.

Charlotte McClain-Nhlapo

Disability Advisor EAP World Bank

11/12 July 2006.

Objectives of the wb
Objectives of the WB

  • Poverty reduction & sustainable development.

  • Priorities embodied in the MDG’s.

  • Reaching the poorest of the poor.

  • The WB estimates that there are approximately 1.3 billion people living below the poverty line worldwide of which people with disabilities make up around 20% of the poorest of the poor.

Reaching the poorest
Reaching the poorest

  • This translates into an estimated 260 million PWD’s living in absolute poverty.

  • 1 in 5 people living on less than a $1 a day have a disability.

  • To reach the poorest of the poor & most isolated citizens, poverty reduction efforts need to target issues affecting PWD’s & develop policies & programmes aimed at reducing their poverty.

Defining disability
Defining disability

  • Disability is not simply a medical condition;

  • Rather it results from the physical, mental, or sensory impairments with culture, social institutions & physical environments.

  • When a person has an impairment which limits some aspect of their functioning it only becomes a disabling condition if they are confronted with barriers to things like health services, education, employment, public services & infrastructure.


  • Could be physical barriers, programmatic barriers, or cultural barriers- stigma & social exclusion.

  • Disability grows out of an interaction between human functioning & an environment which does not account for different levels of functioning.

Some facts about disability
Some facts about disability.

  • It affects not only the person with a disability, but the family, the community & society at large.

  • Women & girls with disabilities often face double discrimination.

  • Aging increases disability.

In eap alone
In EAP alone.

  • WB/WHO estimate approximately 400 million persons with disabilities live in EAP region—comprising almost 2/3 of the world’s disabled population.

What we do know
What we do know?

  • The number of people with disabilities continues to increase in tandem with growth of the world population.

  • Factors causing the increase include war & other forms of violence, inadequate medical care, & natural & other natural disasters.

The profile of disability
The profile of disability

  • Many people with disabilities are poor.

  • Global estimates indicate that

    • 90% of them are illiterate,

    • 40% are poor &

    • 80 % -live in isolated rural areas.

    • Almost that many live in areas where the services needed to help them are unavailable.

Disability in eap poverty dimensions of disability
Disability in EAP Poverty Dimensions of Disability

  • Poor more likely to be disabled

  • Disabled more likely to be poor:

    • Low education/high illiteracy

    • Lower rates of economic activity

    • Poor nutrition

    • Less access to basic services

    • Lower economic status

  • Families affected

    • PWD likely to not work

    • Another family member = caregiver

    • Cost of healthcare and services higher

  • Poverty and disability
    Poverty and Disability

    For people with disabilities, poverty is multidimensional. It is characterized by:

    Material deprivation (low consumption—food--,poor housing)

    Low human development (education and health)

    Lack of voice and ability to influence decisions that affect their lives

    Acute vulnerability to adverse shocks (illness, economic crises, natural disasters, conflict).

    Poverty cycle
    Poverty cycle.

    • There is a clear indication that poor people with disabilities are more likely to be caught in a vicious cycle of poverty and disability, each being both a cause & a consequence of the other.

      • People with disabilities face discrimination, social exclusion & stigma from the moment they are perceived to have an impairment.

    Disability poverty
    Disability & Poverty.

    • Poverty is fundamentally an issue of exclusion.

    • Integrating disability into operations & research does not involve creating a separate agenda to be added on.

    • It requires innovation & improving what already exists.

    Things are changing
    Things are Changing

    • People with disabilities are increasingly demanding to be part of society.

    • Policy makers, planners & International agencies have realized that there is no way the MDG’s can be achieved without reaching the most vulnerable groups in society.

    • It is now universally recognized that there can be no sustainable development without inclusive development.

    Paradigm shift
    Paradigm shift

    • Moving towards the social model.

      • More integrated

      • It conceptualizes disability as an interaction between individual limitations & the environment.

        In contrast – the medical model which focused on the medical condition of the person.

    The social model
    The social model

    • Is rights based

    • It is more cost effective

    • More sustainable & can be used to combat poverty.

    • Critical for developing countries.

    Why bank involvement

    • Link between disability and poverty

      • Poor disproportionately disabled

      • Disabled disproportionately poor

  • High actual vs. reported prevalence = high cost

    • Percent of population not working

    • High dropout rates, remaining out-of-school children

    • Low cost prevention and early interventions = higher productivity

    • Cost effective inclusion

  • Strategies for inclusive development
    Strategies for inclusive development.

    • Must include two aspects.

      • Prevention

      • Integration

        80% of disabilities stem from preventable causes.

        (malnutrition, natural disasters, disease, conflict, traffic & other injuries, birth).

    It requires
    It requires

    • Addressing disability requires a multi-sectoral approach.

    • Disability is a cross cutting issue & affects all aspects of planning.

    • It requires innovation & flexibility- stepping outside of the box.

    How to do we
    How to do we . . . ?.

    • Achieve inclusive development requires the application of three principles as well as thegeneral principlesfound in a newUN Human Rights Conventionbeing developed for people with disabilities.

    The three principles
    The Three Principles

    • Should be seen not only as goals and objectives, but as the processes through which inclusive development for people with disabilities is achieved:

    1 access
    1. Access

    • Peoplewith disabilities should enjoy access to the built environment, transportation, information & communications,

    • so that they may be full participants in all aspects of life, & fully enjoy the full range of human rights.

    2 equity
    2. Equity

    • People with disabilities should enjoy equitable access to the benefits resulting from development activities.

    • These activities should promote non-discrimination & equal opportunities for people with disabilities to participate in every facet of life: civil, political, economic, social & cultural.

    3 inclusion
    3. Inclusion

    • People with disabilities should be accepted as equal partners in development, & be included as full participants in all development activities.

    • People with disabilities should be part of the PRSP consultations.

    • In the CAS.

    Inclusion essential for success
    Inclusion essential for success

    • Strengthening the disability policy focus of PRSP’s is essential to the success of their strategies for 2 reasons.

      • Disability is a significant factor of extreme poverty in developing countries.

      • Unless people with disabilities are included in the PRSP’s - it is unlikely that most of the MDGs will be met.

    Real life
    Real Life

    • It will not happen over night.

    • Need to have real people involved.

    • This a complex set of concepts and requires a range of different actors.

    • While it is complex it is not insurmountable & there already a number of good practices.

    • We need to work with DPO’s & share knowledge.

    Training on inclusive development