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Lynn University Doctoral Dissertation Hearing. Learning Styles, Multimedia Hybrid versus Traditional Teaching, Course Satisfaction, and Learning Outcomes in Art Appreciation Courses. Ching-Chuan Chan August 15, 2007. Introduction to the Problem. Dramatic changes in in structional technology.

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Lynn University

Doctoral Dissertation Hearing

Learning Styles, Multimedia Hybrid versus Traditional Teaching, Course Satisfaction, and Learning Outcomes in Art Appreciation Courses

Ching-Chuan Chan

August 15, 2007

introduction to the problem
Introduction to the Problem
  • Dramatic changes in instructional technology.
  • Conflicting performance results.
  • No empirical study was found to explain the effectiveness between multimedia hybrid and traditional course delivery in Art Appreciation courses.
purpose of the study
Purpose of the Study

1. Explanatory (correlational) purpose

To explain the relationships among student background characteristics and learning styles on course satisfaction and learning outcomes in Art Appreciation courses.

purpose of the study cont
Purpose of the Study (Cont.)

2. Exploratory (comparative) purpose

To compare the percentage of dependent variance explained by the independent and attribute variables between the two groups.

definition of terms
Definition of Terms

Learning Styles

  • Theoretical definition

Learners respond to or interact with stimuli in the learning context.

Closely related to the learner’s personality, temperament, and motivation. (Kolb, 1984)

  • Operational definition

Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory (KLSI 3.1), a 4-point, 12 items self-report ipsative (rating) scale, was used to assess learning styles.

definition of terms cont
Definition of Terms (Cont.)


The quality of the instruction

Students’ feelings

The quality of the course

(Rivera et al., 2002)

Two global-item of course satisfaction instrument which created by the researcher was used to assess students’ course satisfaction.

definition of terms cont1
Definition of Terms (Cont.)

Course Grade

  • Theoretical definition

The instructor-assigned grade was viewed as the measurement of course grade (Young et al., 2003).

  • Operational definition

Course grade was measured using GPA associated with each letter grade (A= 4.00, A-= 3.67, B+= 3.33, B= 3.00, B-= 2.67, C+= 2.33, C= 2.00, C-= 1.67, D+= 1.33, D= 1.00, F= 0.00).

definition of terms cont2
Definition of Terms (Cont.)

Art Appreciation Learning Gains

Theoretical definition

The intended student learning outcomes in art appreciation courses.

Operational definition

Pre-test and post-test using the same essay questions AEA were utilized to measure student art appreciation learning gains

(posttest - pretest = learning gains).



  • Concepts of theoretical framework are measurable
  • Research hypotheses can be tested


  • Participants are available
  • Time investment is manageable
justification cont
Justification (Cont.)


  • Understanding the influence of course delivery methods and learning styles on course satisfaction and student learning outcomes may facilitate instructional innovation in art appreciation education.
delimitations and scope
Delimitations and Scope
  • Day undergraduate students
  • Must read, write, and speak English.
  • At least 18 years or older.
review of literature
Review of Literature

Art Appreciation

Learning Gains

Experiential Learning

Theory (KLSI)

Course Grade

Multiple Intelligences

(Howard Gardner)

Course Satisfaction

Myers-Briggs Personality Theory


Learning Styles

Learning Outcomes


Student Background




Learning Modality


Course Delivery Formats



Art Appreciation Course

literature gaps
Literature Gaps
  • No empirical study was found to examine the relationships among student characteristics, learning styles, and learning outcomes between course delivery formats in the field of art appreciation education.
  • Conflicting results produced.
hypothesized model
Hypothesized Model

Course Delivery:

Multimedia Hybrid Delivery

H1a, H2a, H3a

Course Delivery:

Traditional Face-to-Face Delivery

H1b, H2b, H3b

Art Appreciation

H1c, H2c, H3c

Student Background Characteristics

Age, Gender, Major,

and Prior Computer Experience

Learning Orientations

Concrete Experience (CE), Reflective Observation (RO)

Abstract Conceptualization (AC), and Active Experimentation (AE)

Learning Preferences

Abstractness (AC-CE) and Concreteness (AE-RO)

Learning Style Classifications

Converging, Diverging, Assimilating, and Accommodating

Course Satisfaction

H1a, H1b,H1c

Learning Outcome:

Course Grade

H2a, H2b, H2c

Learning Outcome:

Art Appreciation Learning Gains

H3a, H3b, H3c

Tests the effectiveness of Hybrid course delivery

Tests the effectiveness of traditional face-to-face course delivery

Compares the explanatory power between hybrid and traditional face-to-face

research design population
Research Design & Population

Research Design

  • Prospective (longitudinal)
  • Explanatory (correlational)
  • Exploratory (comparative)
research design population cont
Research Design & Population (cont.)
  • Target Population (n=129)

Multimedia hybrid group (n=69)

Traditional face-to-face (n=60)

  • Accessible Population (n=71)

Target population = Accessible population

sampling plan
Sampling Plan
  • The entire accessible population was 71 respondents which included 44 students in the multimedia hybrid group and 27 students enrolled in the traditional group.

Student Background Characteristics

instrumentation cont
Instrumentation (Cont.)

Learning Style Inventory (LSI)

Description: A self-report ipsative (rating) scale which consisted of 12 items and four responses to each item for a total of 48 variables.

instrumentation cont1
Instrumentation (Cont.)

Aesthetic Experience Assessment

Description:AEA was modified by the researcher to include three essay questions with three criteria and three responses.

instrumentation cont2
Instrumentation (Cont.)

Course Satisfaction

Description:A 5-point Likert scale that included two global items, was created by the researcher.

instrumentation cont3
Instrumentation (Cont.)

Course grade report

Course grade was secondary data provided by the instructors at the end of the courses.

methods of data analysis
Methods of Data Analysis

Descriptive Statistics

To answer Research Question 1 describing the characteristics of all variables.

methods of data analysis cont
Methods of Data Analysis (Cont.)

Independent t-tests and Chi-Square

To answer Research Question 2 about the differences in student background characteristics (gender & major --- Chi-Square), learning styles, course satisfaction, course grade, and art appreciation learning gains.

methods of data analysis cont1
Methods of Data Analysis (Cont.)

Eta, Pearson r correlations, and

Hierarchical multiple regression

To examine the explanatory relationships between student background, learning styles, course satisfaction (H1a and H1b), course grade (H2a and H2b), and art appreciation learning gains (H3 and H3b).

methods of data analysis cont2
Methods of Data Analysis (Cont.)

Adjusted R-Squares

To compare the percentage of dependent variances of course satisfaction (H1a VS. H1b = H1c), course grade (H2a VS. H2b = H2c), and art appreciation learning gains (H3a VS. H3b = H3c) explained by independent and attribute variables between the two groups.

practical implications
Practical Implications
  • Based on the differences of student learning outcomes, to provide students their preferred learning environment may facilitate learning and increase course satisfaction and learning performance.
  • To understand students’ learning style may facilitate instructors to manage their classes more effectively.
practical implications cont
Practical Implications (Cont.)
  • To enhance the usage of instructional technologies to facilitate instructors’ teaching, and further improve teaching effectiveness.
  • The results of this study may facilitate instructional innovation in higher education art appreciation courses.

1. Student course satisfaction and learning outcomes may be influenced by different course delivery formats offered in art appreciation courses.

2. Student background characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups.

conclusions cont
Conclusions (Cont.)

3. Student learning orientations and learning preferences were not significantly different between the groups. However, students’ learning style classifications appeared significant between the groups.

4. Students with a specific learning style as a mediating factor may have an effect on learning efficiency of the courses. For instance, student with a Diverging learning mode may favor and perform well in art related courses.

conclusions cont1
Conclusions (Cont.)

5. Student background characteristics and learning styles were not significant to explain the variances of student course satisfaction and learning outcomes in the art appreciation courses.

6. The scores of post-test AEA were lower, which may be due to participants spending less time in answering questions compared with the pretest, and the post test did not count toward grading.

  • Only focused on one University the results may not able to generalize to other populations.
  • Small sample size (n=71) limited findings being generalizing to target population.
  • The instructors characteristics may have influenced the findings.
  • Lower reliability and poor construct validity of KLSI, findings may no robust.
  • The AEA not counted toward the student final grade.
recommendations for future study
Recommendations for Future Study
  • A larger population, across universities and countries.
  • Conduct in different level of institution using larger samples and across semesters.
  • To include the factor of the characteristics of instructors and participants.
  • Same instructor teaching both course delivery methods.
recommendations for future study cont
Recommendations for Future Study (Cont.)
  • The AEA test be part of the final course grade.
  • Continue to develop a reliable instrument to evaluate student learning gains.
  • Employ useful instructional technologies in art appreciation courses.
recommendations for future study cont1
Recommendations for Future Study (Cont.)
  • Multiple mediated regression analysis could be used with learning styles as the mediating variable between course delivery and learning outcomes.
  • All variables using in this study could be examined with structural equations modeling.