Temperature and pressure
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Temperature and pressure. Remember: Temperature is the average speed of molecules. Predictions: What do you think happens to Pressure as Temperature Increases? What do you think happens to Pressure as Temperature Decreases?. Temperature, pressure, and density.

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Temperature and pressure
Temperature and pressure

  • Remember: Temperature is the average speed of molecules.


  • What do you think happens to Pressure as Temperature Increases?

  • What do you think happens to Pressure as Temperature Decreases?

Temperature pressure and density
Temperature, pressure, and density

  • When temperature , pressure , density

  • When temperature , pressure , density

  • Why?

    • Pressure decreases the farther away from Earth’s surface because there is less stuff

    • Pressure increases the closer towards Earth’s surface because there is more stuff pressing down on you.

    • Why does temperature decrease in the troposphere as you move away from Earth?

What is wind
What is wind?

  • How heat flows on land.

    • Cool Air Sinks and forces Warm Air to Rise

  • Air moves from high pressure (cool) to low pressure (warm) areas

  • Current carries heat through water.

  • Wind speeds increase the farther up in the atmosphere you go.


  • The amount of water vapor in the air.

  • Relative Humidity: How much water a parcel of air is capable of holding.

    • Changes with temperature

    • What is a Parcel:

      • Think balloon containing air

Dew point
Dew Point

  • Temperature air needs to be cooled to until it can hold no more water

    • Remember cold air can hold less stuff then warm air.

    • At this point water will condense

    • On the right stuff this

      condensation of water forms


Dew ≠ Rain

Cloud Condensation ≠ Rain

How do clouds form
How do clouds form?

1stStep: We Need Condensation Nuclei

2nd Step: Air Needs to Be Lifted

What’s that?

Moist Air Rises and Expands

Most Common:

1). Lifted Over A Mountain…

Orographic Lifting

2). Frontal Wedging

Meeting a very different air mass

Somehow we need to get air to rise
Somehow….we need to get air to rise…

  • Orographic Lifting:

    • Mountain is more dense,

      So the air rises over.

  • Frontal Wedging

Dry adiabatic cooling rate

*10C/1000 m

When does air stop cooling at this rate?

Types of clouds
Types of clouds

Height Descriptions = Prefixes

Shape = 2nd half

1). Cirro: Very High Clouds

2). Alto: Middle Clouds

3). Strato: Low Clouds

Cirrus: Thin Wispy

like hair

Cumulus: Big Puffy/

Lumpy Clouds

Cotton Balls

Stratus: Continuous


Nimbus = Storm Cloud

Identify that cloud1
Identify that cloud


Identify that cloud2
Identify that cloud


Identify that cloud3
Identify that cloud


Identify that cloud4
Identify that cloud


Identify that cloud5
Identify that cloud


Identify that cloud6
Identify that cloud


Identify that cloud7
Identify that cloud


Types of stability
Types of stability

Stable Atmosphere

Unstable Atmosphere

Air is sinking; high pressure

Clouds are thin or not present

Air is rising; low pressure

Clouds tall

Intense Precipitation possible

Severe storms possible


  • When the dew point of water vapor is reached close to the surface

  • Advection Fog: Happens during the morning hours

    • Horizontal movement of warm moist air from over water to land where temperatures are cooler.

  • Radiation Fog: happens on cool/clear nights

    • Heat escapes from Earth and Earth cools down