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Cs 575 Week 4

Cs 575 Week 4

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Cs 575 Week 4

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  1. Cs 575 Week 4 Spring 2008 Bapa Rao

  2. Outline • Organizational • Discussion on previous week’s presentations • Continuing discussion on Engelbart’s article • Student Presentations • Discussion • Agenda for next week

  3. Organizational • CS 575 Forum is now set up • Supplement your classroom discussion grade • Sign up for forum, if you aren’t already signed up • Contact me if you need help • Each presenter can take the lead on their topic and encourage others to join in • If you join in discussion of others’ topics, they will come to yours • Create a forum topic and link your wiki presentation back to it • When uploading presentations, using widely accessible formats (ppt, not pptx for example) • Only one signed up presentation today? • Please keep the wiki signup page updated • Questions? Comments?

  4. Engelbart review • Capability to obtain better solutions to complex problems • Benefit ‘information workers’ • New conceptual framework • What to augment • Artifacts, language, methodology, training • Whorf’s hypothesis & the weighted pencil expt • Problem-solving process • Structure: bureaucratic to more distributed • Executive capability—choosing from repertoire • What is the impact of augmentation?

  5. Engelbart: Two-domain system • H-LAM/T

  6. Last week’s presentations • Cloud computing—Tam Nguyen • Human interaction in Internet communities—Jerry Chang • HCC and HCM—Ashok Sahu • Artificial Life—Saeid Mousavi

  7. Engelbart (contd) • Capability repertoire hierarchy • Basic capabilities (human and artifact) are the raw materials • Mental structuring (cognitive structures) • Development Models: garden, basketball team, machine building • Concept structuring • Symbol structuring • Process structuring • ‘M’ in H-LAM/T • Physical structuring • A in H-LAM/T • Interdependence among all these structures

  8. Engelbart (contd) • Concept structuring • concepts are tools • concepts have handles--representations • concept structures map to mental structures • some concept structures are better than others • language (natural lang esp) is the grand concept structuring tool

  9. Engelbart (contd) • Symbol structuring • some symbols work better than others • depends on the purpose • need flexibility, translatability • view generation capability (rather than physical linear ordering)

  10. Engelbart (contd) • Interdependence among hierarchies • Cyclic • Regenerative • Improvement in one category feeds improvement in other categories

  11. Augmenting the Human Intellect • 1962 report/proposal to Air Force Ofc. Of Scientific Research • Capability to obtain better solutions to complex problems • New conceptual framework • Not small tricks • Example scenario: an architect’s workday • Design alternatives • Operational environments • Functional specifications • Detailed design • Tools • Synthesis, analysis, verification, debugging

  12. Engelbart (contd) • Who will benefit • Every person who does his thinking with symbolized concepts • Human language, pictographs, formal logic, mathematics, … • Architects, engineers, lawyers, writers, … • ‘information workers’

  13. Engelbart (contd) • Conceptual framework is needed to know • What to augment • artifacts • language • methodology • Training • Goal: problem solving process • Process is what we actually do, and are trying to do more effectively • Structure or organization across the board • Little steps, organized as a process hierarchy • Versus objects? • Process repertoire or toolkit • Basic capabilities (‘hardware’) to higher-level capabilities • Synergy, emergent capabilities, … • Which subprocess to choose? • Executive Capability: planning, selecting, and supervising • Augmentation impact • Suppose you had a better writing tool… • Hardware, software, dictionary, spell checker, fact researcher, … • Pencil to word processor • Benefits? • Break down old process, come up with new process • New capabilities!

  14. Engelbart: Two-domain system • H-LAM/T

  15. Engelbart (contd) • How did humans get ‘augmented’ during our development? • 1. concept manipulation • 2. symbol manipulation • 3. Manual, External, Symbol Manipulation • Whorf’s hypothesis: Language affects our thinking and capabilities • 4. Automated external symbol manipulation (neo-whorfian: technology affects language and capabilities) • Language can also evolve to meet conceptual and task needs (counterargument to whorfian hypothesis)

  16. Engelbart (contd) • Brick-pencil experiment

  17. Engelbart (contd) • Brick-pencil expt (de-augmentation) • Typewriter: 7 sec • Pencil: 20 secs • Brick, small letters: 65+ secs • Brick, large letters: 42 secs • Impacts on effectiveness of culture • Too hard too few people doing it • Different concepts for work, record-keeping, etc. • What about known impacts of actual augmentation, 46 years after Engelbart wrote this proposal?

  18. Engelbart (contd) • Capability repertoire hierarchy • Basic capabilities (human and artifact) are the raw materials • Mental structuring (cognitive structures) • Development Models: garden, basketball team, machine building • Concept structuring • Symbol structuring • Process structuring • ‘M’ in H-LAM/T • Physical structuring • A in H-LAM/T • Interdependence among all these structures

  19. Engelbart (contd) • Concept structuring • concepts are tools • concepts have handles--representations • concept structures map to mental structures • some concept structures are better than others • language (natural lang esp) is the grand concept structuring tool

  20. Engelbart (contd) • Symbol structuring • some symbols work better than others • depends on the purpose • need flexibility, translatability • view generation capability (rather than physical linear ordering)

  21. Engelbart (contd) • Interdependence among hierarchies • Cyclic • Regenerative • Improvement in one category feeds improvement in other categories

  22. Engelbart (contd) • Roles and levels • executive • direct-contributive • model of executive superstructure • Bureaucratic hierarchy is onerous • contractor-subcontractor model • Flexibility in the Executive Role • executive tasks are complex • orderly flexibility requirement on symbol etc. structures is costly • disorderly process of change must be supported • ‘agile methodologies’

  23. Berners-Lee’s view • Social = Human • Concept augmentation is an emergent phenomenon

  24. Student presentations • Uday Dhokale • Logo, Dynabook, Media Lab • ???