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Coloring of Plastics Presented by:. Created July 2007 Last Modification 5 September 2007. Coloring of Plastics. Color and Color Science. Colorants – Pigments and Dyes. Inorganic - Organic Pigment Particles. Definitions. Color Appearance. Color. Hue. Color Attribute Identification.

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coloring of plastics presented by

Coloring of PlasticsPresented by:

Created July 2007

Last Modification 5 September 2007

slide2

Coloring of Plastics

Color and Color Science

Colorants – Pigments and Dyes

Inorganic - Organic Pigment Particles

definitions

Definitions

Color Appearance

Color

the three elements of color vision

The Source

The three elements of color vision

The Eye

The Object

visual observing requires

The three elements required to perceive color

Light

Human Color Perception

An object

Visual Observing Requires

To quantify - each must be represented by a table of numbers

light sources

The Sun

Fluorescent

Incandescent

Light Sources

Illuminants

metamerism illustrated

Definition

metamerism, n—property of two specimens that match under a specified set of conditions whose spectral properties differ in the visible. There are three types!

Metamerism Illustrated

visual observing requires1

The three elements required to perceive color

Light

Human Color Perception

An object

Visual Observing Requires

To quantify - each must be represented by a table of numbers

slide12

The Observer

Rod shaped receptors in the eye are responsible for night vision

Cone shaped receptors are responsible for our daylight vision and color reception

Red,Green, and Blue are the three types of cone shaped receptors

cie observers

CIE Observers

Experiments quantified the response functions of the human eye.

Observers viewed a white screen through an aperture subtending 2o FOV.

Half the screen was illuminated by a test light. The other half illuminated by observer-controlled, adjustable lights (primaries).

The observer adjusted the intensity of the three primary lights until the color of the test light matched.

This process was carried out over the entire visible gamut.

visual responses

Visual Responses

Short

Long

Medium

Tristimulus Response Functions

the observer functions

Tabular Data

The Observer Functions

Data Plot

The experimentally derived x, y, & z functions are the 1931 2o Standard Observer functions.

These functions quantify (create a table of values for) theRED, GREEN, andBLUEcone response function of the average human observer.

slide17

CIE 10o Supplemental Observer

In 1931 it was believed that color vision was confined to the fovea region ~2o. Later it was determined that this is NOT true and the experiment was repeated in 1964.

The result being the Supplemental Observer, called the 10o Supplemental Observer!

2 o 10 o observer functions

The 10o Supplemental Observer function givers better correlation with visual observations and assessments.

Most commercial applications should use this function.

2o & 10o Observer Functions

visual observing requires2

The three elements required to perceive color

Light

Human Color Perception

An object

Visual Observing Requires

To quantify - each must be represented by a table of numbers

objects spectral reflectance

Tabular Data

Objects & Spectral Reflectance

Spectral Reflectance Curve

slide21

Object Interaction with Light

Light interacts with an object

Light,  (zeta), will be;

Absorbed, A,

Reflected, R or

Transmitted, T.

Mathematically we express this as:

 = A + R + T

Hence the total amount of light incident upon a sample is equal to the sum of the amounts absorbed, reflected, and transmitted.

The magnitude of A, R, or T depends on the object – is it transparent, translucent, opaquesmooth, or rough? (etc).

the color of objects is assessed with spectrometers or colorimeters

The color of objects is assessed with spectrometers or colorimeters

BYK-Gardner

Datacolor International

Hunter Lab

Konica-Minolta

X-Rite

slide23

Coloring of Plastics

Color and Color Science

Colorants – Pigments and Dyes

Inorganic - Organic Pigment Particles

slide24

COLORANTS FOR PLASTICS

Pigments

Dyes

Polymer

Soluble

Transparent

Insoluble

Solid

Particles

Generally Opaque

slide25

THERMOPLASTIC RESINS

Polyvinyl Chloride

Polyolefin's

PP, HDPE, LDPE

Polystyrene

Engineering Resins

Nylon, PET, PBT, ASA, PC

slide26

PIGMENTS

Organic

Inorganic

Special Effects

slide27

INORGANIC PIGMENTS

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

LARGE PARTICLE SIZEOPAQUELOWER SURFACE AREAHIGH HEAT STABILITYEXCELLENT LIGHTFASTNESSVARYING WEATHERABILITYLIMITED TINT STRENGTH (EXCLUDING TiO2)

WIDE VARIETY OF SHAPES

slide28

INORGANICS

Pigment TypeExamples Manufacturing

Method

AL, Zn

Bronze Powders

Mica flakes

Elemental

Pigments

Controlled combustion,

Thermal/Mechanical decomposition,

Metallurgical deposition processes

PbCrO4, BaSO4,

CdS, CaCO3, ZnS,

Ce2S3

Precipitated from

chemical solutions

Precipitated

Pigments

Purification of natural

Minerals, High temperature

Solid state reactions

TiO2, Fe2O3,

Mixed Metal Oxides,

Spinels

Pyrolysis

Pigments

slide29

ORGANIC PIGMENTS

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

SMALL PARTICLE SIZETRANSPARENTLARGER SURFACE AREAVARYING HEAT STABILITYVARYING LIGHTFASTNESSVARYING WEATHERABILITYHIGH TINT STRENGTHLARGE SELECTION OF COLORANTSBRIGHT CLEAN COLORS

slide30

ORGANICS

Naphthols

Acetoacetarylides

Monoazo

Arylides

Naphthanilides

Azo

Type

-(-N=N-)-

Azo Condensation

Insoluble metal salts of acid dyes

Diarylides

Disazo

Pyrazolones

-(-N=N-)- -(-N=N-)-

slide31

ORGANICS

Phthalocyanines

Anthraquinone

Vat

Type

Thioindigo

Flavanthrone

Triphendioxazine

Miscellaneous

Metal Complexes

Quinacridone

Basic Dyestuff Complexes

Carbon Black

slide32

SPECIAL EFFECTS

Pearlescents

Modified Titanium Dioxide

Multi Layered Inorganics

Aluminum Flakes

Brass Flakes

Edge Glow, Fluorescent

Marble, Frost

slide33

GENERALIZED PROPERTIES

OF COLORANTS

DESIGNED FOR PLASTICS

INORGANIC ORGANIC DYES

HIGH HEAT (300 C) + - -

COLOR STRENGTH - + +

LARGE PARTICLE SIZE + - -

TRANSPARENT - +/- +

WEATHERABILITY + +/- +/-

ONE ALWAYS NEEDS TO CHECK EACH COLORANT PROPERTIES BEFORE USE

slide34

COLORANT DELIVERY FORMS

Forms

Cons

Pros

Dry Pigment Least Expensive Dispersion can be inconsistent and cleanup extensive

Concentrates–

  • Single Pigment (SPD) Easy dispersing, flexible Added cost
    • Forms- liquid & solid Cleanup minimal Custom color limitations
  • Custom Color Easy dispersing Added cost, modifications limited, carrier compatibility
  • Cryogenic Easy dispersing Added cost, carrier compatibility.
  • Paste Easy dispersing Added cost, Special feeder
  • FlushesEasyDispersingModerate cost, Limited types, carrier affects properties
slide35

LIGHT STABILITY

0.2% Pigment with 2% TiO2 in PVC, Daylight in Northern Europe

slide38

Coloring of Plastics

Color and Color Science

Colorants – Pigments and Dyes

Inorganic - Organic Pigment Particles

general colorants properties and or parameters
OIL ABSORPTION

PARTICLE SURFACE AREA

PIGMENT VOLUME CONCENTRATION

PIGMENT AVERAGE PARTICLE SIZE

PIGMENT PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION

PIGMENT PARTICLE SHAPE

PIGMENT DISPERSION

PIGMENT AGGREGATION

PIGMENT SURFACE TREATMENTS

POTENTIAL PIGMENT PARTIAL SOLUBILITY

MOISTURE

PIGMENT SOLUBLE SALTS

COMPLEX SYSTEM REFRACTIVE INDEX

pH OF ALL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

SYSTEM VISCOSITY OR FLOW

SYSTEM MELT TEMPERATURE

SUSEPTABLITY TO SHEAR

DILATANCY (THICKENS WHEN SHEARED)

THIXOTROPY (THINS WHEN SHEARED)

POTENTIAL PIGMENT REACTIVITY

GENERAL COLORANTSPROPERTIES AND/OR PARAMETERS
slide44

EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON LIGHT SCATTERING

UNEFFECTED LIGHT RAY

SCATTERED LIGHT RAYS

REFRACTED LIGHT RAY

PIGMENT PARTICLE SIZE HAS A DIRECT EFFECT ON PIGMENT EFFECTIVENESS. TOO SMALL A ND LIGHT RAYS ARE UNEFFECTED. LARGE PARTICLES WILL REFRACT LIGHT, BUT NOT SCATTER IT. PARTICLES WITH DIAMETERS ABOUT HALF THE WAVELENGTH OF THE LIGHT GIVE MAXIMUM SCATTERING

slide46

PARTICLE SHAPE ASPECT RATIOS

PLATE

SPHERE

BLOCK

CUBE

FLAKE

NEEDLE

IRREGULAR

TYPICAL ASPECT RATIOS FOR PARTICLE SHAPES

VARIOUS

20 +

4 - 30

1

~1

1 - 4

80 - 200

ASPECT RATIO DEFINITION

The Aspect Ratio is defined as the ratio of the longest length of a particle

to the thickness of that particle.

Aspect Ratio = Longest Particle Dimension / Thickness Dimension

slide51

DISTRIBUTIVE MIXING VERSUS DISPERSION

POOR DISTRIBUTIVE MIXING GOOD

POOR DISPERSION COMPLETE

CCS 01

typical small inorganic and organic pigments versus a typical small nano particle

TYPICAL SMALL INORGANIC AND ORGANIC PIGMENTS VERSUS A TYPICAL SMALL NANO-PARTICLE

SMALL INORGANIC PIGMENT = 0.05 MICRONS

SMALL ORGANIC PIGMENT = 0.01 MICRONS

SMALL NANO-PARTICLE = 0.0003 MICRONS

nanometer and nanotechology
NANOMETER AND NANOTECHOLOGY
  • A NANOMETER IS I/1,000,000,000,000 (BILLIONTH) OF A METER
  • A NANOMETER IS ABOUT THE SIZE OF 10 HYDROGEN ATOMS SIDE BY SIDE
  • A TYPICAL HUMAN HAIR IS ABOUT 50,000 NANOMETERS IN DIAMETER
  • THE SMALLEST THING A TYPICAL HUMAN CAN SEE IS ABOUT 10,000 NANOMETERS
  • A 3 NANOMETER PARTICLE IS ABOUT 900 TIMES SMALLER THAN THIS PERIOD (.)
  • NANOSCALE MATERIALS ARE OBJECTS UP TO ABOUT 100 NANOMETERS IN SIZE
slide54

1 MICRON VS 1 NANOMETER VS 1 ANGSTROM

1 Micron

1 Nanometer

1 Angstrom

slide55
HIGHWAY 21,257

FALLS 12,646

DROWNING 4,186

FIRE 3,958

FALLING OBJECTS 712

FARM MACHINES 553

BATHTUB FALLS 345

FALLING COCONUTS 150

DRUG SIDE EFFECTS 156

FALLS INTO HOLES 99

HIT BY LIGHTNING 80

SNAKE BITES 68

FAULTY APPLIANCES 66

SERIAL KILLERS 20

HEAVY METALS ± 1

(METHYL MERCAPTAN)

Source: National Safety Council

ACCIDENT STATISTICS IN 1992 FOR THE UNITED STATES CAUSES DEATHS CAUSES DEATHS

slide59

Disclaimer:

The information in this presentation is furnished in good faith based on current technology, experience, experience, and knowledge thought to be true. The Color and Appearance Division (CAD) of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE) makes no warranty or assumes no responsibility of any kind, expressed or implied, regarding this information. CAD and/or the SPE does not assume any responsibility for any subsequent processing or compounding of any resources or materials in order to produce compound(s) or any finished article(s). Nor does CAD or SPE imply this information may suggest any legally binding assurance of certain properties or suitability for any specific purpose. It is the responsibility of those using this information to ensure their actions complies with any proprietary rights and/or existing laws or legislation.

slide60

Credits:

Robert Charvat

Colorants – Pigments and Dyes

rchavat@msm.com

Steve Goldstein, Ph D

Inorganic - Organic Pigment Particles

steven.goldstein@basf.com

Jack Ladson

Color and Color Science

Jack.ladson@verizon.net