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Information. Effective information management must begin by thinking about how people use information—not with how people use machines. Thomas Davenport . Key characteristics of the end of the twentieth century. High velocity global change Changing international relationships

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information

Information

Effective information management must begin by thinking about how people use information—not with how people use machines.

Thomas Davenport

key characteristics of the end of the twentieth century
Key characteristics of the end of the twentieth century
  • High velocity global change
    • Changing international relationships
    • Downfall of dictatorships
    • Trading blocs
    • Globalization of business
  • Emergence of powerful information-based organizations
    • Microsoft
    • Intel
    • CNN
historical perspective
Historical perspective
  • Phases of civilization
    • Agriculture
    • Industrial
    • Information
    • Creation
the information age
The information age
  • Built on sand
    • Silicon chips
    • Fiber optics
  • Borderless
    • A free flow of:
knowledge transfer
Knowledge transfer
  • Writing and paper enable accumulation and transmission of knowledge
  • Writing encodes information
  • Full writing systems are 5,000 years old
  • Storage medium has progressed from clay to magnetized material
  • Large scale organizational memory parallels development of large organizations
information richness
Information richness
  • Managers seek rich information to resolve equivocality
  • Information systems typically deliver lean information
information and organizational change
Information and organizational change
  • Organizations are goal seeking
  • Information supports goal seeking

Present

performance

Desired

performance

Goal setting

information

Gap information

Change information and

information as a means

or change

goal setting information
Goal setting information
  • Anchoring and adjusting
  • Planning
    • Demographic trends
    • Economic forecasts
  • Benchmarking
    • Competitors’actions
gap information
Gap information
  • Problem identification
    • A gap between expectations and performance
  • Scorekeeping
    • Quantitative
    • Qualitative
    • Use of critical success factors to determine variables to measure
gap information15
Gap information
  • Detecting the gap
  • Problem identification
    • Exception reports
  • Scorekeeping
    • Routine reports
change information
Change information
  • Closing the gap
  • Problem solution
    • Determining the cause(s)
    • Identifying alternatives
    • Analysis of alternatives
information as a means of change
Information as a means of change
  • Information can be a source of competitive advantage
  • Information can be built into products and services
  • Marketing
    • Frequent flyer programs
  • Customer service
    • Information technology used to improve service
  • Empowerment
    • Sharing information with employees
    • Giving employees freedom to make decisions
managerial work
Managerial work
  • Managers implement organizational change
  • Managerial work is:
    • Fragmented
    • Brief
    • Frequently disturbed
    • High velocity
    • Action oriented rather than contemplative
managerial communication
Managerial communication
  • Preference for oral communication
  • Extensive use of networks
    • Information source
    • Way of getting things done
  • Formal reporting systems
    • Infrequently used
    • Source of confirming information
managerial information requirements
Managerial information requirements
  • Expect relevant information
  • Expectations continually change
demand varies with hardness of information

High

Information

hardness

Low

Low

High

Volume of information

requested

Demand varies with hardness of information
  • Use multiple sources in search of reliability
demand varies with responsibilities
Demand varies with responsibilities

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information satisficing
Information satisficing
  • Decision overload is a problem
  • Satisficing
    • Accept first satisfactory decision
    • Collect enough information to make a satisfactory decision
  • Lowers quality of decision making
organizational memory is fragmented
Organizational memory is fragmented

File

Image

Organizational Memory

People

File

MIS

IPS

MIS

E-mail

Information integration software

(e.g., an EIS)

Client

the ideal system
The ideal system

Organizational Memory

Information delivery system

Client

organizational knowledge
Cognitive knowledge

Advanced skills

System understanding and trained intuition

Self-motivated creativity

Know what

Know how

Know why

Care why

Organizational Knowledge
skills values vs training expenditure
Skills values vs. training expenditure

Training expenditure

Value to the firm

Cognitive skills (know what)

Advanced skills (know how)

System understanding (know why)

Motivated creativity (care why)

types of knowledge
Types of knowledge
  • Explicit
    • Codified and transferable
  • Tacit
    • Personal, experience, judgment
    • Difficult to codify
    • Difficult to transfer