transport systems in animals n.
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Transport systems in animals. We’ll be discussing. Functions of a transport/circulatory system Invertebrate circulation Diffusion Aided by gastrovascular cavity Water vascular system Open circulatory system Closed circulatory system Vertebrate circulation Fishes Amphibians. Reptiles

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we ll be discussing
We’ll be discussing
  • Functions of a transport/circulatory system
  • Invertebrate circulation
    • Diffusion
    • Aided by gastrovascular cavity
    • Water vascular system
    • Open circulatory system
    • Closed circulatory system
  • Vertebrate circulation
    • Fishes
    • Amphibians
  • Reptiles
  • Birds
  • Mammals
    • Pathway of blood
    • Cardiac cycle
    • Maintenance of heartbeat
    • Principles governing blood circulation
    • Lymphatic system
    • Blood composition and function
    • Cardiovascular disease
functions of the circulatory system
Functions of the circulatory system
  • Transports materials
    • Nutrients from digested food
    • Respiratory gases: CO2 and O2
    • Waste materials: toxins and nitrogenous wastes
    • Antibodies
    • Hormones
    • Enzymes
  • Immune functions
  • Maintains homeostasis
    • Blood pH
    • Heat transport
how are materials transported in multicellular organisms
How are materials transported in multicellular organisms?

Gastrovascular cavity in simple invertebrates

  • Cnidarians (e.g. Hydra) and flatworms (e.g. planarians)
  • No system required
  • Single opening: exchange of materials with the environment
  • Central cavity for digestion and distribution of substances throughout the body
  • Body walls two cell layers thick  materials undergo diffusion
how are materials transported in multicellular organisms1
How are materials transported in multicellular organisms?

Water vascular system in echinoderms

  • multi-purpose: locomotion, food and waste transport, respiration
  • movement of muscles pump water into canals
  • closed system of canals connecting tube feet
  • madreporite ring canal  radial and lateral canal  tube feet  ampullae
how are materials transported in multicellular organisms2
How are materials transported in multicellular organisms?

Open circulatory system

  • Phylum Arthropoda, Phylum Mollusca (with one exception)
  • hemolymph
  • heart(s)  sinuses ostia heart(s)
  • diffusion from sinuses to organs
  • often serve a support purpose
  • disadvantage: loss of pressure in sinuses
  • insects: well-developed respiratory systems, O2 not transported through the blood
how are materials transported in multicellular organisms3
How are materials transported in multicellular organisms?

Closed circulatory system or cardiovascular system

  • cephalopods, annelids, vertebrates
  • presence of blood vessels
  • advantages
    • rapid flow
    • may direct blood to specific tissues
    • blood cells and large molecules remain within vessels
    • can support higher levels of metabolic activity
general plan of the cardiovascular system
General plan of the cardiovascular system
  • Heart
    • Atrium
    • Ventricle
  • Blood vessels
    • Arteries
    • Arterioles
    • Capillaries and capillary beds
    • Venules
    • Veins
  • Blood
vertebrate adaptations of the cardiovascular system
Vertebrate adaptations of the cardiovascular system

FISHES

  • Single-circulation
  • Fish heart
    • 2-chambered
      • atrium and ventricle
  • African lungfish heart
    • 3-chambered
      • 2 atria
        • LA: O2-rich blood
        • RA: O2-poor blood
        • spiral fold
      • partially divided ventricle
vertebrate adaptations of the cardiovascular system1
Vertebrate adaptations of the cardiovascular system

Amphibians

  • Pulmocutaneous and systemic circulation are partly separated
  • Amphibian heart
    • 1 ventricle
    • 2 atria:
        • LA: O2-rich blood
        • RA: O2-poor blood
  • advantage: oxygen-rich blood reaches the body’s organs faster
  • disadvantage: some mixing of O2-rich and poor blood occurs
vertebrate adaptations of the cardiovascular system2
Vertebrate adaptations of the cardiovascular system

Reptiles

  • Reptilian heart
    • 3-chambers (crocodilians have 4)
      • 2 atria
      • 1 ventricle (2 in crocodiles and alligators)
        • partially divided, decreases mixing
vertebrate adaptations of the cardiovascular system3
Vertebrate adaptations of the cardiovascular system

Birds and Mammals

  • 4 chambered heart:
    • 2 atria
    • 2 ventricles
  • full separation of pulmonary and systemic circuits
  • Advantages
    • no mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
    • gas exchange is maximized
    • pulmonary and systemic circuits operate at different pressures
  • Importance
  • Endothermic  high nutrient and O2 demands in tissues
  • Numerous vessels  great deal of resistance, so requires high pressure
blood flow in mammals
Blood flow in mammals
  • R side of heart:
    • pulmonary circuit
  • L side of heart:
    • systemic circuit
  • one way valves:
    • atrioventricular valves
    • semilunar valves
slide15

Blood flow in mammals

  • right atrium receives O2-poor blood from superior and inferior venae cavae
  • from right atrium into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve
  • pumped into the pulmonary artery through the pulmonary semilunar valve to lungs
  • O2-rich blood from lungs is returned to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins
  • enters the left ventricle via the mitral or bicuspid valve
  • exits the left ventricle into the aorta via the aortic semilunar valve
  • circulated to body tissues