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Republic of Azerbaijan. A Century of Pain. Oil being the most important natural resource followed by iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, and salt Subtropical climate, relatively mild winters and long hot summers. Baku- capital and largest city Area- 33,400 sq. mi

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republic of azerbaijan

Republic of Azerbaijan

A Century of Pain

geologic features resources
Oil being the most important natural resource followed by iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, and salt

Subtropical climate, relatively mild winters and long hot summers

Baku- capital and largest city

Area- 33,400 sq. mi

Mt. Bazarduzu- country’s highest peak (14,652 ft)

Geologic Features - Resources
the people
The People
  • Official state language- Azeri, a Turkic language
  • Population estimate- 7,798,497 in 2002
  • 57% of pop. Live in urban areas
  • Ethnic groups- Armenians, Russians, Dagestanis, Kurds, Georgians
  • Originally used Arabic alphabet
people continued
People (Continued)
  • 1939 the Soviet regime mandated use of Cyrillic alphabet
  • After independence, adopted Turkish version of the Latin script
  • Azeris are Muslim; Islam was introduced in the 7th century A.D.
  • 70% Azeri Muslims are Shias, and 30% are Sunnis
  • GDP = $5.3 billion
  • Cotton is the leading cash crop followed by wine, grapes, fruits, vegetables, and tobacco
  • Petroleum is the country’s major mineral, the largest oil field is about 60 mi from the coast
  • Main trading partners remain the republics of the former Soviet Union
  • Leading exports are machinery, food products, and metals
  • Manat is the legal tender (4,474 manats=$1 U.S.)
  • Presidential Republic, governed under a constitution adopted in 1995
  • President is elected for 5 year terms
  • Legislative Power is the Milli Majlis or National Assembly, composed of 125 members who serve 5 year terms
government continued
Political Parties- New Azerbaijan Party, Popular Front of Azerbaijan, National Independence Party

Judiciary- Supreme Court, country’s highest court

Began forming armed forces after gaining independence

Beginning at age 18, military service is compulsory for at least 17 months for all males

Government (Continued)
  • Beginning of 7th century to 18th century- mostly dominated by different groups of Turkish Muslims
  • Imperial Russia conquered the region in early 18th century
  • After oil was discovered in 19th century, an influx of Russians and Armenians resulted in highly segregated cities
  • 1905 the beginning of violent clashes between Azeris and Armenians
  • 1918 May Azeri nationalists declared Azerbaijan’s independence
history continued
History (Continued)
  • 1920 Bolshevik Red Army invaded establishing complete control of Transcaucasia region
  • 1920-1930’s the Soviets persecuted Azeri nationalists whom were considered threats to communist rule
  • Orchestrated by Mir Jafar Baghirov, Azeris were deported to gulags or executed
  • 1940 Stalinist purges killed 120,000 Azeris
history continued1
History (Continued)
  • Feb. 1988 conflict erupted in Nagorno Karabakh
  • October 1991 became an independent republic and Mutalibov became president
  • 1992 May Popular Front of Azerbaijan seized control of government and its leader Aliyev Elchibey was elected president
  • Aug 1993 Armenian forces in Nagorno Karabakh gained control of government
  • Dec 1993 Azeris recaptured some areas while suffering heavy casualties
history continued2
History (Continued)
  • 1994 – 18,000 people had been killed and 25,000 wounded sine the conflict began in 1988
  • May 1994 Both sides agreed to cease hostilities
  • A former communist official named Heydar Aliyev is currently president