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Transforming economies for jobs and inclusive growth post 2015. Nikhil Chandavarkar, PhD Chief, Outreach and Communication Branch Division for Sustainable Development United Nations, New York. Stocktaking. Widespread concern for lack of job opps All countries, all ages concerned

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Transforming economies for jobs and inclusive growth post 2015

Transforming economies for jobs and inclusive growth post 2015

Nikhil Chandavarkar, PhD

Chief, Outreach and Communication Branch

Division for Sustainable Development

United Nations, New York

Stocktaking 2015

  • Widespread concern for lack of job opps

  • All countries, all ages concerned

  • Global Unemployment: up 27 million since 2007, total of 189 million (= 1 Brazil)

  • Figure expected to grow; labour force grows 40 million/year, by 2030 – 37 million/year, by 2030 - 31 million/year

  • 2016-2030: 470 million new jobs needed

Global employment
Global employment 2015

Global labour force: 3 billion

One half in wage employment

Self employment: 1.35 billion (60% in agriculture)

Global unemployment: 189 million

Global unemployment rate: 6%

Global unemployment millions
Global unemployment 2015 (millions)

Scenario today
Scenario today 2015

Rich world (OECD): Unemployment sharp increase, 16% of labour force, one half of global increase in Un past five years

Developing World: 56% trapped in informal, vulnerable, meagre pay jobs

75 million of 189 million unemployed are youth

Scenario today1
Scenario today 2015

90 % of all youth are in developing countries, 1/5 are unemployed

Higher unemployment for vulnerable groups and women

Unemployment rates for youth in some OECD countries > 50%

Jobs in p2015 milestones
Jobs in P2015: Milestones 2015

Reports: SG’s HL Panel Report, Global Compact Report, SD Solutions Network Report (7/2013)

Stakeholder inputs: MyWorld Survey (1.4 million responses), Major Groups Thematic Clusters (2013)

High Level Political Forum (24/9/2013)

HL Event on Accelerating MDGs (25/9/2013)

Open Working Group on SDGs, Committee on Financing SD: report back 9/2014, with SDGs

Negotiations SDGs begin 9/2014,

Synthesis P2105 report compiled 12/2014

P2015 intergovermental negotiations begin 1/2015

Adoption of P2015 DA at Summit 9/2015

What is the post 2015 development agenda p2015
What is the Post 2015 Development Agenda (P2015)? 2015

Past Development Agendas (DAs) of UN: Development decades, 1995 DA, International Conference Agendas (Agenda 21)

Top-down or bottom-up agenda setting?

Caveats and reservations about Dev. Agendas

Bringing the whole world on board, rich and poor

Bringing all stakeholders on board, non-governmental and governmental

Stocktaking ahead of setting the post 2015 development agenda
Stocktaking ahead of setting the Post 2015 Development Agenda:

Mixed record on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): improved quality of life of billions, but did not focus enough on reaching the very poorest and most excluded people (as per HL Panel Report on Post2015)

MDGs did not integrate economic, social and environmental goals; were largely social in focus

MDGs did focus attention and action on key challenges, rallied world behind common approach to development

Much unfinished work to address extreme poverty and hunger, preventable disease and deaths, rising inequalities and environmental crises, particularly climate change

Most MDG targets still achievable by 2015: build momentum into 2015 and beyond

Centrepiece of post-2015 development agenda: sustainable development goals (SDGs) to build on MDGs, address inequalities and new challenges facing people and the planet.

Progress towards the mdgs as of 2013
Progress towards the MDGs as of 2013 Agenda:

  • Progress made (MDG Report 2013): Poverty more than halved (47%-22%); access to safe drinking water rose 76% to 89% (2.1 billion benefited), 40 million more children attend school, five million more children living, more than 1.1 million people saved from malarial deaths, 8 million people treated for HIV.

  • Unmet targets: mortality under 5 (41%<2/3),maternal mortality (47%<3/4), CO2 emissions 46% higher than 1990; deforestation alarming rate; species extinction; ODA decreased (2% - 2011, 4% - 2012)

  • New and emerging and urgent challenges: planetary boundaries exceeded, 60% annual Earth depletion in 1990; 150% depletion in 2010; widespread deprivation despite progress towards MDGs – bottom billion; population dynamics – possible 8 to 10 billion world by 2050.

From the mdgs to the sdgs
From the MDGs to the SDGs Agenda:

  • Lifting people out of poverty and protecting the planet’s resources two sides of the same coin.

  • UN system goal next two years: support Member States arrive at one single and cohesive development agenda for a post-2015 era with sustainable development (SDGs) at its core to realize a future with prosperity for all.

  • Background reports so far: SG’s High-level Panel on Post-2015, UN Global Compact, the Sustainable Development Solutions Network, the UN Development Group ‘Global Conversation’, Global Sustainable Development Report, World Economic and Social Survey, MDG Report 2013 (1 July)

  • Official report: SG’s report on MDG acceleration and post-2015 to GA in September

From the mdgs to the sdgs1
From the MDGs to the SDGs Agenda:

  • Formulating the SDGs: the work of the Open Working Group on the SDGs

  • Member state driven process mandated by Rio +20:30 shared seats representing 70 member states from five UN groups

  • Eight sessions through February 2014 covering three dimensions of SD

  • Report to GA by end of 68th session

  • 69th session deliberates, 70th session adopts post-2015 development agenda

From the mdgs to the sdgs2
From the MDGs to the SDGs Agenda:

  • Proposals for the SDGs: universal –all countries, all people , including those excluded remaining after MDGs

  • Balance economic, social and environmental goals and targets

  • Expand MDG agenda: poverty, food, land, jobs, youth, health, population dynamics, water, sanitation, energy, growth, trade, vulnerable countries, cities, transport, SCP, forests, oceans, biodiversity, finance, technology

From the mdgs to the sdgs3
From the MDGs to the SDGs Agenda:

  • Possible new time horizon 2015 to 2030

  • Universal goals, targets selectively pursued nationally according to Rio principles

  • Role of the intergovernmental process in following progress: high level political forum (HLPF), GA and ECOSOC

From the mdgs to the sdgs4
From the MDGs to the SDGs Agenda:

  • SDGs: provide concrete and simple form to post 2015 development agenda

  • SDGs: concentrate, galvanize action

  • SDGs: provide for a new commitment period – coming decades

  • SDGs: new global partnerships and voluntary commitments (1,382 since Rio+20), innovative finance

  • SDGs: broader people and planet goals than MDGs, bolder targets, more national differentiation (Rio principles)

  • SDGs/P2015: draw on inputs of all stakeholders

Stakeholder involvement p2015 process
Stakeholder Involvement P2015 Process Agenda:


World We Want


Major Groups MG (B&I)& Other Stakeholders


SDGs e-Inventory


Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform

MG Thematic Clusters and Steering Committees

Other Stakeholder consultations

Joint Position Papers

Other Stakeholder inputs

- Open Working Group

Sustainable Development Goals Report

- P2015 Report and Negotiations

Emerging vision for the post 2015 agenda with all inputs so far
Emerging Vision for the Post 2015 Agenda with all inputs so far

  • SG’s Report : A Life of Dignity for All : end poverty and achieve sustainable and inclusive growth. The key elements of vision for Post-2015 Agenda:

    • i) universality: mobilize all developed & developing countries, leave no one behind;

    • ii) sustainable development: tackle the interlinked challenges a clear focus on ending extreme poverty in all its forms;

    • iii) inclusive economic transformations: ensuring decent jobs, backed by sustainable technologies, and to shift to sustainable patterns of consumption and production;

    • iv) peace and governance, based on the rule of law and sound institutions, as key outcomes and enablers of development;

    • v) a new global partnership, recognizing shared interests, different needs and mutual responsibilities, to ensure commitment to and means of implementing this new vision;

    • vi) being “fit for purpose”, to ensure the international community is equipped with the right institutions and tools to address the challenges of implementing the sustainable development agenda at the national level.

Messages from interim report of owg on the sdgs to 68 th general assembly
Messages from Interim Report of OWG on the SDGs to 68 farth General Assembly

  • HOLISTIC: make poverty eradication irreversible, include and interlink economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development.

  • FEW ASPIRATIONAL GOALS: a few aspirational goals, easy to communicate. Critical global priorities by common agreement

  • FOCUS ON KEY DRIVERS OF SD: desirable outcomes and key drivers. cross-cutting nature of many issues

  • CAPTURE INTERDEPENDENCE OF GOALS: Capture in the narrative complex, cross-cutting, connected factors e.g. human rights, rights-based approaches, governance, rule of law and wider participation in decision-making.

  • FINANCE, TECHNOLOGY, CAPACITY BUILDING: resources and concerted actions, provisions for means of implementation

  • NEW PARTNERSHIPS: mobilized international efforts and resources behind specific MDGs. Similar goal-oriented partnerships for SDGs.

Heads of state and government vision of post 2015 development agenda
Heads of State and Government: farVision of Post 2015 Development Agenda

Reinforce the international community's commitment to poverty eradication and sustainable development.

Stress central imperative of poverty eradication free humanity from poverty and hunger as a matter of urgency.

Recognize the intrinsic interlinkage between poverty eradication and promotion of sustainable developmenta coherent approach which integrates in a balanced manner the three dimensions of sustainable development.

Provide a single framework and set of Goals -universal in nature and applicable to all countries, while taking account of differing national circumstances and respecting national policies and priorities

Promote peace and security, democratic governance, the

rule of law, gender equality and human rights for all.

[From PGA Special Event 25 September at GA: Outcome Document: ]

Employment and decent work in the sdgs
Employment and decent work in the SDGs far

  • OWG IV in June covered employment and decent work for all, most direct route out of poverty, based on robust, inclusive job-creating growth

  • Enterprises and entrepreneurs are principal job creators

  • Unemployment, especially of youth serious,

  • A goal or targets related to jobs would need address working poor and unemployed

  • Social protection is cross cutting – extend even to low-income

  • Emphasize human rights, especially to education

  • Complete unfinished work of the MDGs to ensure universal primary school enrollment, learning outcomes, relevance to job needs, lifelong learning, adult literacy, and non formal education

  • Culture is a source of resilience, strength and adaptability of societies

  • Reflect youth concerns across goals, expecially re: education, health and employment

A employment and decent work goal iilustrative proposal hlp goal 8
A employment and decent work goal: fariIlustrative proposal - HLP Goal 8


  • a) Increase the number of good and decent jobs and livelihoods by x

  • b) Decrease the number of young people not in education, employment or training by x%

  • c) Strengthen productive capacity by providing universal access to financial services and infrastructure such as transportation and ICT

  • d) Increase new start-ups by x and value added from new products by y through creating an enabling business environment and boosting entrepreneurship to give specific emphasis to the latter than raising GDP.

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