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CHAPTER 45 CHEMICAL SIGNALS IN ANIMALS. Egg. Larva. Pupa. Adult. Introduction. Endocrine system الجهاز الهرموني is one of the main internal communication وسائل الاتصال الداخلي systems. The animal hormone-secreting cells الخلايا المفرزة للهرمونات constitute the endocrine system.

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CHAPTER 45

CHEMICAL SIGNALS IN ANIMALS

Egg

Larva

Pupa

Adult

introduction
Introduction
  • Endocrine system الجهاز الهرمونيis one of the main internal communication وسائل الاتصال الداخلي systems.
  • The animal hormone-secreting cells الخلايا المفرزة للهرمونات constitute the endocrine system.
  • Hormone secreting organs are called Endocrine Glands (ductless glandsالغدد الصماء).
  • Hormone is a chemical signal اشارة كيميائية secreted into blood stream يتم افرازها الى تيار الدم and regulates communicating messages تنظم وسائل الاتصالwithin the body.
  • Target cell الخلية المستهدفة is the site of action of the hormone موقع العمل
  • Types of hormones are
  • Polypeptide Hormones
  • Amino acid derivatives Hormones
  • Steroid Hormones

Tropic hormones:الهرمونات المحفزة (المنبهة) target other endocrine glands

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Most chemical signals bind to plasma-membrane proteins, initiating signal-transduction pathways.

Mechanism of chemical signaling:

The chemical signals secreted by a cell either:

I): Protein hormones:

Bind to a receptor protein بروتين مستقبل on the surface of the target cell.

Fig. 45.3a, Page 959

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II) Steroid hormones:

Penetrate تخترق the cell and bind to a receptor protein inside the targetcell

  • Estrogen, progesterone, vitamin D.

Fig. 45.3b, Page 959

the vertebrate endocrine system

الصنوبرية

النخامية

الدرقية

الكظرية

The Vertebrate Endocrine System
  • Tropic hormones

(الهرمون المنبه للغدد)

  • Target other endocrineglands.
  • Human has 9 endocrine glands.

Fig. 45.5, Page 960

the hypothalamus and pituitary integrate many functions of the vertebrate endocrine system
The hypothalamus and pituitary integrate many functions of the vertebrate endocrine system
  • The hypothalamus integrates endocrine and nervous function.
    • Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus produce hormones.
      • Releasing hormones stimulate the anterior pituitary to secrete hormones.
      • Inhibiting hormones prevent the anterior pituitary from secreting hormones.

1)- Pituitary gland:secrets 9 hormones( 7 hormones by the anterior part and 2 hormones by the posterior part).

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A)- Anterior pituitary hormones.
  • Growth hormone (GH): a protein.
    • Stimulates growth and metabolism.
    • Gigantism:العملقةexcessive GH during development.
    • Acromegaly تضخم الاطراف: excessive GH production during adulthood.
    • dwarfism القزمية: childhood GH deficiency.
  • Prolactin (PRL): a protein.
    • Stimulates milk production انتاج اللبنand secretion from mammary glandالغدد اللبنية.
  • Gonadotropins (Gonotropicمحفز للمناسل): glyocoproteins.
    • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
      • Stimulates production of sperms and ova.
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH) المُحفز لتكوين الجسم الأصفر.
      • Stimulates ovaries and testes.
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Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): a glycoprotein.
    • Stimulates thyroid gland.
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): a peptide
    • Stimulates adrenal cortex secretion of glucocorticoids
  • Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH): a peptide.
    • May play a role in fat metabolism.
  • Endorphins: peptides.
    • Inhibit pain perception.
    • Effects mimicked by heroin and other opiate drugs.
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Melanocyte-stimulating H.

Adrenocorticotropic

Also called gonadotropine hormones هرمونات المناسل

The anterior pituitary gland hormones

Fig. 45.6b, Page 963

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B)- Posterior pituitary hormones.
  • Oxytocin: a peptide.
    • Stimulates contraction of the uterus and mammary glands.
    • Secretion regulated by the nervous system.
  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH):مُضاد لإدرار البول a peptide.
    • Promotes retention of water by the kidneys (in Kidney tubules).
    • High level decreases urination and viceversa.
    • Secretion regulated by water/salt balance.
  • 2- Pineal gland:الغدة الصنوبرية is a small mass of tissue near the center of the mammalian brain and involved in biorhythms.
    • The pineal gland secretes the hormone, melatonin, an amine.
      • Involved in biological rhythms associated with reproduction.
      • Secretion regulated by light/dark cycles.
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Antidiuretic H

  • Posterior pituitary(neurohypophysis)stores and secretes hormones produced by the hypothalamus.

Fig. 45.6a, Page 963