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Collin County Boosting Engineering Science and Technology Workshop

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### Time

### Strategy

### Documentation

### Schedule

### BEST Design Process

### Conceptual Design

### Conceptual Design

### Conceptual Design

### Conceptual Design

### Conceptual Design

### Conceptual Design

### Conceptual Design

### Conceptual Design

### Conceptual Design

### Preliminary Design

### Detailed Design

### Production Design

### BEST Engineering Mechanics

### Machines

### Simple Machines

### Levers

### Levers

### Levers

### Levers

### Levers

### Block and Tackle

### Block and Tackle

### Block and Tackle

### Block and Tackle

### Gears

### Gears

### Torque

### Torque

### Torque

### Design Example

### Design Example

### Design Example

### Design Example

- Introduction
- Lessons Learned
- Design Process
- Engineering Mechanics

- Save time:
- Complete any known tasks prior to kickoff.
- Organize all tools, parts, and supplies.
- Establish a secure work area.
- 4. Establish and enforce chain of command to prevent unnecessary rework.

- STRATEGY IS AS IMPORTANT AS A FUNCTIONAL MACHINE:
- Complete machine early in order to get practice.
- 2. Participate in Mall Day but also visit other hubs Mall Day.

- DOCUMENTATION IS ESSENTIAL
- If it isn’t documented, it didn’t happen – document everything.
- 2. Have team notebooks and an overall master notebook.
- 3. Complete engineering notebook in stages as they occur.

WEEK 1: Concept Selected

WEEK 2: Mock-up Complete

Course Complete

WEEK 3: Prototype Robot Complete

WEEK 4: “Production” Robot Complete

Begin Drawings

WEEK 5: Drive Practice, Strategy Development

WEEK 6: Drive Practice

Complete Drawings

The four main phases of design are:

In the COCO BEST suggested schedule, you have 1 week for each phase.

STEP 1: LIST ALL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ROBOT.

This list is generated after reviewing the rules and developing a general strategy.

Draw a picture of the playing field and sketch strategies.

Example of requirements: Meet weight requirements

Meet size requirements

Negotiate course

Have high reach

Easy to operate

Pick up gamepieces

STEP 2: BREAK DOWN LIST INTO NEEDS AND WANTS

STEP 3: SET DESIGN TARGETS FOR EACH REQUIREMENT:

STEP 5: LIST ALL ROBOT FUNCTIONS

MOVE TO SCORING AREA

OBTAIN GAME PIECE

SECURE GAME PIECE

LIFT GAME PIECE

…

STEP 6: DEVELOP CONCEPTS FOR EACH FUNCTION

STEP 7: ASSIGN A LETTER AND NUMBER TO EACH CONCEPT

(Make a sketch of each)

A1 – Chassis with wheels

A2 - Chassis with treads

A3 - Frame with wheels

B1 – Jaw

B2 - Scoop

B3 – Velcro

C1 – Spring

C2 – Lock

C3 – Rubber Band

D1 – Level arm

D2 – Fork lift

D3 – Scissor lift

- STEP 8: EVALUATE CONCEPTS USING:
- Feasibility – can this be done?
- Go / No Go – does it meet all needs?
- Decision Matrix – does it meet wants?

Feasibility

Decision Matrix (wants only)

+ means that concept is better at meeting the requirement than the datum

- means that concept is worse at meeting the requirement than the datum

s means that concept is the same at meeting the requirement as the datum

The chart shows A1 to be the preferred concept for the “A” function (move to scoring area)

Continue this for all functions. The end result will be an overall concept.

Example: Chassis with wheels, jaw, rubber band lock and lever arm.

STEP 1: Take the concept and sketch an overall configuration. Do not worry about the details at this point. Label the major components.

STEP 2: Sketch each of the major components on a separate sheet. Put enough information on the sketch so that the component can be made from a piece of cardboard. Try to keep the overall size requirement in mind.

STEP 3: Make cardboard pieces from the sketches and assemble.

STEP 4: Evaluate the model and ensure it meets all of the requirements. Make modifications as needed. Try it on the course and ensure it fits in the 24x24x24 inch box.

You now have a model of the robot.

STEP 1: Disassemble the cardboard model and mark-up each sketch to show the final dimensions. Also indicate on the sketch the material that will be used to make the real part.

STEP 2: Create sketches for parts that are not on the model such as wheel mounts, motor mounts, etc. Consider lifting requirements, torque available from motors, etc.

STEP 3: Create an overall assembly sketch of all parts. Label each part.

You now have a detailed design of the robot.

STEP 4: Fabricate each part from the sketch and assemble the robot.

You now have a prototype robot.

STEP 1: After testing the prototype, make changes as required.

STEP 2: Once the robot is in its final configuration, make detailed drawings of each part.

- Purpose:
- Introduce students to the theory of some simple machines.
- Apply the theory of simple machines to robotics design.

- WHAT IS A MACHINE?
- A device that transmits, or changes, the application of energy.
- Allows for the multiplication of force at the expense of distance.
- A machine does work.
- Work is force applied through a distance.

- SIMPLE MACHINES:
- Simple machines have existed and have been used for centuries.
- Each one makes work easier to do by providing some trade-off between the force applied and the distance over which the force is applied.
- We will discuss the following simple machines and relate them to robotics design:
- LEVERS
- PULLEYS
- GEARS
- We will also discuss the concepts of torque as related to robotics design

A lever is a stiff bar that rotates about a pivot point called the fulcrum. Depending on where the pivot point is located, a lever can multiply either the force applied or the distance over which the force is applied

There are three classes of levers:

First Class Levers

The fulcrum is between the effort and the load. A seesaw is an example of a simple first class lever. A pair of scissors is an example of two connected first class levers.

Second Class Levers

The load is between the fulcrum and the effort. A wheelbarrow is an example of a simple second class lever. A nutcracker is an example of two connected second class levers.

Third Class Levers

The effort is between the fulcrum and the load. A stapler or a fishing rod is an example of a simple third class lever. A pair of tweezers is an example of two connected third class levers.

- Force and Effort
- To lift a load with the least effort:
- Place the load as close to the fulcrum as possible.
- Apply the effort as far from the fulcrum as possible.

If more weights are to be added, simply add them to the required side of the equation. For example, to add an additional weight (W3), a distance (D3) to the right of the fulcrum makes the equation :

W1 D1 = W2 D2 + W3 D3

THIS CAN BE DEMONSTRATED USING A RULER AS A LEVER AND COINS AS WEIGHTS

How many levers can you find in the loader?

PULLEYS / BLOCK AND TACKLE

A block and tackle is an arrangement of rope and pulleys that allows you to trade force for distance.

Imagine that you have the arrangement of a 100 pound weight suspended from a rope, as shown. If you are going to suspend the weight in the air then you have to apply an upward force of 100 pounds to the rope. If the rope is 100 feet long and you want to lift the weight up 100 feet, you have to pull in 100 feet of rope to do it.

Now imagine that you add a pulley. Does this change anything? Not really. The only thing that changes is the direction of the force you have to apply to lift the weight. You still have to apply 100 pounds of force to keep the weight suspended, and you still have to reel in 100 feet of rope to lift the weight 100 feet

Now add another pulley. This actually does change things in an important way. You can see that the weight is now suspended by two ropes rather than one. That means the weight is split equally between the two ropes, so each one holds only half the weight, or 50 pounds. That means that if you want to hold the weight suspended in the air, you only have to apply 50 pounds of force (the ceiling exerts the other 50 pounds of force on the other end of the rope). If you want to lift the weight 100 feet higher, then you have to reel in twice as much rope - 200 feet of rope must be pulled in. This demonstrates a force-distance tradeoff. The force has been cut in half but the distance the rope must be pulled has doubled.

- Gears are generally used for one of three different reasons:
- To reverse the direction of rotation
- To increase or decrease the speed of rotation
- To move rotational motion to a different axis

- You can see effects 1, 2 and 3 in the figure
- The two gears are rotating in opposite directions.
- The smaller gear spins twice as fast as the larger gear because the diameter of the gear on the left is twice that of the gear on the right. The gear ratio is therefore 2:1 pronounced, "Two to one").
- The axis of rotation of the smaller gear is to the right of the axis of rotation for the larger gear.
- If D is the motor and 2D is being driven, 2D has twice the torque. (Same effect can be accomplished with a belt).

TORQUE

A force applied to a body that causes it to rotate creates torque.

The motors supplied in your kits are designed for a specific torque and are listed as:

Large motors - 216 in-oz at 56 rpm (a little less than 1 revolution per second)

Small motors – 34 in –oz at 113 rpm (a little less than 2 revolutions per second)

The equation for torque for the motors is:

T = r F

Where:

T = torque of the motor

r = radius of the motor shaft, pulley or whatever is attached to the motor shaft

F = the force created by the motor

Since the torque is pretty much a constant ( you are stuck with the motors provided in the kit), and you probably want to know the force your motor can produce, the equation can be written as:

F = T/r

If you want to know the radius needed for your motor shaft, the equation becomes:

r = T/F

EXAMPLE:

Let’s take the concepts we have learned and design an arm that will lift a 1 lb game piece.

Let’s assume that our mockup resulted in the following:

Since the arm is a lever, let’s use the lever equation to figure out how much force is on the string. The weights and distances from the fulcrum for everything on the right is :

If we add 480+240+80 we get 800 in-oz. This is the right side of the lever equation. The equation becomes:

W1 x 5 inches = 800 in-oz

Or W1 = 160 oz

This means that the force in the string is 160 oz except, we have two strings sharing the load because of the pulley arrangement so therefore the force in the string is only 80 oz.

Let’s put in a safety factor of 1.5 so that the force in the string is now 80 * 1.5 = 120 oz. This will ensure that the motor will lift the required weight even on low batteries etc.

Now we need to calculate the motor shaft size that will create a 120 oz force. The equation for the shaft radius is

r = T/F or r = 34 / 120 = .283 inches.

This means our shaft needs to have a radius of .283 inches or a diameter of .566 inches.

What else could you do to improve things?

A counterweight , but not too much or the arm will not lower.

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