Unit 8: Mastering the U.S. History and Government Regents Day 4 "Failure is impossible.” Susan B. Anthony, (1820-1906) suffrage leader and social reformer Btw…Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 = women’s rights
U.S. Global Involvement/Imperialism the opposite of isolationism • Washington’s Proclamation of Neutrality (1793) • 2) Monroe Doctrine (1823) – warned European nations against intervention in Latin America.
Reasons for Expansionism/Imperialism = need for raw materials and new markets
WHERE SHOULD WE EXPAND? • THE PACIFIC • The Open Door Policy – issued to secure equal trade opportunities with CHINA. • THE CARIBBEAN/LATIN AMERICA • CUBA is at war with Spain. • Should the U.S. get involved?
Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst used yellow journalism to generate public support for the war.
The U.S. goes to war to “help” the Cubans = Spanish-American War (1898)
As a result of the war, the U.S… • Built the Panama Canal so they could move more quickly between oceans in order to increase trade and military security. • Obtained overseas colonies (Guam, Puerto Rico, the Philippines) and was recognized as a world power.
Theodore Roosevelt was fond of quoting an old proverb: “speak softly and carry a big stick: you will go far.” He wanted the world to know that if diplomacy (using) failed, the U.S. would not hesitate to use military force to protect its interests in the Caribbean.
Was Teddy Roosevelt the first president to concern himself with the Caribbean? “NO! NO! It was James Monroe! NO! NO! It was James Monroe! James Monroe? What did he do? • The Monroe Doctrine • Declaration by President James Monroe (1823): • U.S would not tolerate a European nation • re-colonizing an independent nation in North • or South America. • * Any such intervention would be considered a hostile act by the United States.
To protect America’s interest in the Caribbean, Theodore Roosevelt (President of the U.S. after McKinley who btw was assassinated) issued the Roosevelt Corollary. took the Monroe Doctrine on step further – U.S. will exercise military force in Latin American countries to keep European countries out. Monroe was a wimp. This time we mean business!
Dollar Diplomacy (1909) William Howard Taft, who followed Roosevelt as President – favored dollar diplomacy, a policy based on the idea that economic ties were the best way to expand American influence in Latin America. Diplomacy = the job or activity of managing the relationships between countries
In June 1914, Serbian nationalist assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian empire.
Please read notes below slide. European Alliances
At the outbreak of WWI in Europe, most Americans believedthat the U.S. should stay out of the war (remain neutral).
During World War I – Restrictions on Freedoms: • Espionage Act/Sedition Act (1917) – Used by Wilson’s administration during WWI to silence critics of the war effort. This illustrated that national interest is sometimes given priority over individual rights. • Schenck v. United States (1919) – Supreme Court ruled that freedom of speech for war protestors could be limited during wartime. The “clear and present danger "doctrinepermits the government to limit speech that threatens the security of the nation.
Please read notes below slide. Economic Effects of World War I:
Effects on Marginalized Groups: American women helped gain support for the suffrage movement by working in wartime industries. African Americans migrate to the North during and following WWI as a result of the availability of new factory jobs. This is called the GREAT MIGRATION.
Please read notes below slide. Political Effects of WWI: Who was the President during WWI? President Wilson
Top of page 28 The First Red Scare • Bolshevik Revolution (Communist takeover of Russia in 1917) increased nativism (anti-immigration sentiments) leading to the First Red Scare (fear of communism in the U.S.) • Passage of the Immigration Quota Act of 1921 and 1924 (restricted amount of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe) because of a recurrence of nativist attitudes following WWI. • Sacco and Vanzetti – Two immigrant anarchists (person who supports the lack of government) who were convicted of murder and executed with very little evidence during the height of the Red Scare. Demonstrated U.S. intolerance toward immigrants. Represented a threat to civil liberties.
From Boom to BUST 1920S/Roaring Twenties to Great Depression
1920s What is the solution to this equation? The second industrial revolution Explosion of manufacturing and production Obsession with buying (mass consumerism of the 1920s) + BOOM: a period of great prosperity Things are good
1920s - Social Change • Prohibition (1919) – Law authorized by the 18th • Amendment that banned the manufacture and • sale of alcoholic beverages. • *Prohibition was officially ended by the 21st Amendment. • Scopes Trial (1925) – John Scopes was convicted in 1925 for teaching about evolution (because it conflicted with what the Bible says). • Harlem Renaissance – African American authors and artists used literature and art to celebrate the richness of their heritage. Increased pride in African-American culture.
1920s – Economic Change • Henry Ford – Use of the assembly line in the • production of automobiles led directly to a • decrease in the coast of automobiles. • Emergence of a “consumer culture” because advertising and installment payments encourage buying. • Installment Buying = paying for something a little at a time • rather than all at once. • 5) Dust Bowl – Caused by over-farming and severe drought. The Great Plains suffered most directly from the Dust Bowl. Resulted in an increased westward migration. • *The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck – detailed conditions of mid-western farmers in the Dust Bowl drought.
1929 THE GREAT DEPRESSION
Causes of the Great Depression: • Stock Market Crash of 1929 • Overproduction and the excessive use of credit. • Lack of government interference in the economy.
President Herbert Hoover – President of the U.S. at the start of the Great Depression. Hoovervilles – Nickname given to poor communities because of Hoover’s refusal to provide direct federal aid to the homeless. Hoover was blamed for the suffering of the poor. Bonus Army – WWI veterans march on Washington in protest, demanding to be paid for service. Demonstrated the growing discontent with Republican efforts to deal with the Great Depression.
Top of page 31 Maybe if I call my political program something cool, people will like it? “*Life in America sucks, I Franklin D. Roosevelt (a fifth cousin of the earlier President Theodore Roosevelt) promise you a “new deal!” *This is not a direct quote!
The New Deal • Most immediate goal was to provide work for the unemployed. • Tried to stimulate economic recovery by creating public works jobs. • Social welfare programs were expanded. • Increased government involvement with both business and labor. • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 1933- Created to improve economic conditions in a poor rural region. An example of federal intervention to meet regional needs. • Social Security Act 1935- Considered an important program because it extended support to elderly/retired citizens. • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)- Tried to restore public confidence in banks. Safeguards savings (government insures the money you have in the bank so that you can’t lose it if the bank fails).
The New Deal continued: • Declared a bank holiday (1933) in order to restore confidence in the nation’s banks. • WPA- Intended to help unemployed workers. • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)- Intended to help unemployed workers. • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)- Regulates certain economic activities of banks and the stock market. Develops rules to limit speculation. Designed to correct abuses in the stock market. • National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)- Strengthened labor unions because it legalized collective bargaining. Labor movement grew rapidly during the 1930’s once the right to organize was protected by law. Astoria Pool built by the WPA in 1936!