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Environmental Science Course Dr. Mohammed Ajjour. Introduction. References. أساسيات علم البيئة للمؤلف د . عبد القادر عابد د. غازي السفاريني مجموعة كتب في المكتبة. ( Lecture One (Introduction. Environmental Science, Origin and Developments Terms and definitions

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environmental science course dr mohammed ajjour
Environmental Science CourseDr. Mohammed Ajjour

Introduction

University Of Palestine 2009,

references
References
  • أساسيات علم البيئة
  • للمؤلف د. عبد القادر عابد
  • د. غازي السفاريني
  • مجموعة كتب في المكتبة.

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

lecture one introduction
(Lecture One (Introduction
  • Environmental Science, Origin and Developments
  • Terms and definitions
  • Environmental science domains
  • Development stages of human environment
  • Environmental problem and their causes
  • Success and failure in environmental science

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

terms definitions
Terms & Definitions

Ecology

  • the study of the relationships between organisms and their environment.
  • the study of the interactions (with both the physical environment and other organisms) that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms.

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

slide5

Cont. Terms & Definitions.

Environment:

  • The world in which human , animals , and plants coexist.
  • The sum total of all physical and biological factors influencing a particular organism.
  • The external physical and biological factors which influence growth, survivorship, development and reproduction of organisms.

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

slide6

Cont.: What is Environment

  • The environment is something you are very familiar with. It's everything that makes up our surroundings and affects our ability to live on the earth-the air we breathe, the water that covers most of the earth's surface, the plants and animals around us, and much more.
  • In recent years, scientists have been carefully examining the ways that people affect the environment. They have found that we are causing water and air pollution, deforestation, acid rain, and other problems that are dangerous both to the earth and to ourselves.

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

slide7

Nucleus of Environment

  • What is the nucleus of your environment?
  • What are the components of your environment ?
  • What is the boundary of your environment?

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

slide8

Nucleus of Environment

  • "YOU" are the nucleus of your environment.
  • The components of your physical environment are your family, friends, enemies, trees, water, air, soil, sun, moon, bacteria, insects, rodents, birds, dogs, cats, rats, bats etc. etc. and the components of your social environment are science, technology, religion, politics, traditions, Culture and customs and above all the maturity of your mind.

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

slide9

Nucleus of Environment

  • The boundary of your environment or your town or city or district as the boundary. As man has already started affecting the global climate, the need of the hour is to dedicate ourselves to safeguard our environment without limiting ourselves to the narrow household or town or country but extending it to the whole universe.

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

environmental science domains
Environmental Science Domains
  • Physical EnvironmentBy "physical environment" we mean
  • The earth including soil, lithosphere and processes that take place on surface and inside
  • Climate with all its parameters (temperature, rain ,winds, ……) .
  • Biosphere with its plants and animal systems .
  • Hydrosphere with its water contents (surface and groundwater)

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

contin environmental science domains
Contin. Environmental Science Domains
  • Man Made Environment
  • Land use (Urban, rural ….etc)
  • Infrastructure and services (wastewater collection syst., roads ,wastewater treatment plants, water supply network……….etc.
  • Air- ,water-, and noise pollution , and ways of control
  • Social Environment
  • Public services (Schools, parks, clinics , civil defence and transportation systems ….etc)
  • Dwellings and living areas
  • Work environment including industrial and commercial areas

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjourand control

contin environmental science domains1
Contin. Environmental Science Domains
  • Aesthetic Environment
  • Historical, and archaeological sites , natural sites with special values
  • Economic Environment
  • economical parameters that affect the living standards , such as :

employment and unemployment rates etc. , living standards, income ……..etc.

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

cont introduction development stages of human environment
Cont. IntroductionDevelopment Stages of human Environment

Since the creation of the earth till now, it passed through many phases

  • Preparations before human life existed . At this stag drastic changes occurred and the hydrosphere and lithosphere developed to allow the development of various animals and plant species on earth
  • Hunting phase: Human searched for food by moving around and hunting. Little impact on environment.
  • Agriculture: 10-12 thousands years ago ,Human started to settle in

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

cont development stages of human environment
Cont. Development stages of human Environment

land and made the first changes in the environment by burning forest.

  • Industrial revolution : Since the middle of the eighteenth Century industrial development, burning fossil energy, movement of people to towns, transportation vehicles …….etc. created many threats to environment
  • information technology : With the 2nd half of the 20th century computers and communication systems developed, at the same time various environmental disasters occurred and people started to worry and to act

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

cont introduction causes of environmental problems
Cont. IntroductionCauses of Environmental problems

Environmental problems increased because of:

  • Limited natural resources and increased population.
  • Exploitation and treatment of mineral resources .
  • Production of huge amounts of dangerous persistent chemicals.
  • Bad agricultural practices, overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, deterioration of soil quality.
  • Use and increased handling of hazardous and

poisonous materials.

  • Bad planning and execution of projects.

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

conti introduction impacts of improved awareness
Conti. Introductionimpacts of improved awareness

Over the last decades , environmental issues are raised on the agenda of top meetings, various governmental and nongovernmental bodies and agencies have been created, political parties ( the greens ) were founded, and many earth summits were organized:

1972, Stockholm.

1982, Kenya.

1992, Rio de Janero

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

failures and successes in recent years
Failures and successes in recent years

.

Failures like :

  • Increased populations
  • Increased consumption
  • Global heating, Deforestation,
  • Biosphere changes due to human actions
  • Decreased number of species, Fish stocks, Forests

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

failures and successes in recent years1
Failures and successes in recent years

Successes Like:

  • Reduced use of Ferions (Montreal Protocol).
  • Better cooperation between economy and environment
  • Involvement of all economic sectors in environmental protection
  • Reduced population in some countries
  • Improved technologies for environm. protection and use of resources

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

threads connecting the branches of environmental sciences
Threads connecting the branches of environmental sciences
  • Following subjects are common consideration for environmental sciences.
  • population growth.
  • Urbanization .
  • Sustainability.
  • Global perspectives.
  • Importance of scientific knowledge

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

end of introduction
End of Introduction

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

chapter 1 the earth and life
Chapter 1The Earth and Life
  • 4.6 Billion years ago , Sun and other planets were formed from Premordial Nebula.
  • During the first some million years, some redistribution of elements of the Earth took place and Volcanoes erupted.
  • In Low areas condensation of water vapour from volcanoes formed water in oceans and seas ( sweet water first, later salty from rocks).This process is still ongoing.
  • Atmosphere gases accumulated from volcanoes ( water vapour, hydrogen sulphate, ammonia, nitrogen , argon and Helium ,no oxygen at this stage. Ultra violet radiation penetrated easily and oxygen formed through UV and H2O splitting was reduced immediately by Gases.
  • .

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour

con the earth and life
Con. The Earth and Life
  • 3500 Million years ago some simple species of Bacteria were found, which are able to exist in absence of O2 and to photosynthesise CO2 to produce free oxygen. Some of these are still there.
  • Since the last 550 million years, the concentration of free O2 increased to present level allowing the existence of other species
  • At present ,these Species undergo different changes and adaptations..
  • During this long history ,the geological processes produced minerals (Gold, diamond, phosphate, Iron..etc)and Fossil Energy Sources ( Oil, Coal, gas ).
  • At the last end Human life began
  • 3500 Million years ago some simple species of Bacteria were found, which are able to exist in absence of O2 and to photosynthesise CO2 to produce free oxygen. Some of these are still there.
  • Since the last 550 million years, the concentration of free O2 increased to present level allowing the existence of other species presence of Oxygen. At present ,these Species are undergoing different changes and adaptations..
  • During this long history ,the geological processes produced the minerals ( like Gold, diamond, phosphate, Iron...etc)and Fossile Energy Sources ( Oil, Coal, gas ).

University Of Palestine 2009, Dr. Mohammed Ajjour